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Table 2 Gait parameters stratified by history of fall, frailty, multimorbidity, multiple medications and disability status as well as age groups and gender

From: Description of spatio-temporal gait parameters in elderly people and their association with history of falls: results of the population-based cross-sectional KORA-Age study

Characteristics Velocity (cm/s) Cadence (steps/min) Time (s) Stride duration* (s) Stride length (cm) Normed stride length Step width (cm) Normed step width
Fall participants (n = 119) 105.5 (24.7) 106.3 (12.2) 4.12 (1.29) 1.14 (0.15) 118.9 (20.4) 1.34 (0.23) 8.79 (3.25) 0.10 (0.04)
Non-fall participants (n = 771) 108.9 (22.9) 105.4 (13.1) 3.89 (1.14) 1.14 (0.16) 124.0 (18.1) 1.40 (0.19) 8.73 (3.22) 0.10 (0.04)
t- and p-value t(−1.43), p = 0.1550 t(0.77), p = 0.4437 t(1.83), p = 0.0686 t(−0.65), p = 0.5170 t(−2.59), p = 0.0106 t(−2.80), p = 0.0052 t(0.18), p = 0.8541 t(0.21), p = 0.8310
Frail participants (n = 330) 95.5 (21.2) 101.9 (13.2) 4.53 (1.34) 1.19 (0.18) 112.5 (17.5) 1.28 (0.19) 9.58 (3.31) 0.09 (0.03)
Non-frail participants (n = 560) 116.2 (20.7) 107.7 (12.4) 3.56 (0.87) 1.13 (0.15) 129.8 (15.9) 1.46 (0.16) 8.24 (3.06) 0.11 (0.04)
t- and p-value t(14.16), p = <.0001 t(6.46), p = <.0001 t(−13.09), p = <.0001 t(−6.13), p = <.0001 t(14.74), p = <.0001 t(−6.01), p = <.0001 t(14.83), p = <.0001 t(−6.46), p = <.0001
Multimorbid participants (n = 561) 104.4 (22.5) 104.6 (12.6) 4.09 (1.22) 1.16 (0.16) 119.7 (18.6) 1.46 (0.18) 9.06 (3.22) 0.09 (0.04)
Not multimorbid participants (n = 329) 115.5 (22.6) 107.2 (13.4) 3.62 (0.99) 1.13 (0.17) 129.5 (16.6) 1.35 (0.19) 8.20 (3.15) 0.10 (0.04)
t- and p-value t(7.12), p = <.0001 t(2.84), p = 0.0046 t(−5.96), p = <.0001 t(−2.30), p = 0.0220 t(7.86), p = <.0001 t(−3.88), p = 0.0001 t(8.24), p = <.0001 t(−4.15), p = <.0001
Disabled participants (n = 174) 91.5 (19.9) 101.3 (11.9) 4.76 (1.39) 1.20 (0.17) 108.6 (18.1) 1.43 (0.18) 9.68 (3.31) 0.10 (0.04)
Non-disabled participants (n = 716) 112.6 (22.0) 106.6 (13.0) 3.71 (1.00) 1.14 (0.16) 126.9 (16.8) 1.33 (0.19) 8.51 (3.16) 0.11 (0.04)
t- and p-value t(12.31), p = <.0001 t(5.13), p = <.0001 t(−11.45), p = <.0001 t(−4.18), p = <.0001 t(12.17), p = <.0001 t(−4.22), p = <.0001 t(12.19), p = <.0001 t(−4.56), p = <.0001
Participants taking 5 and more drugs (n = 271) 101.3 (23.2) 103.3 (13.9) 4.26 (1.34) 1.18 (0.18) 117.5 (18.7) 1.42 (0.19) 9.38 (3.48) 0.10 (0.03)
Participants taking less than 5 drugs (n = 619) 111.6 (22.5) 106.5 (12.4) 3.77 (1.05) 1.14 (0.15) 125.9 (17.8) 1.32 (0.20) 8.46 (3.06) 0.11 (0.04)
t- and p-value t(6.19), p = <.0001 t(3.37), p = 0.0008 t(−5.93), p = <.0001 t(−3.12), p = 0.0018 t(6.22), p = <.0001 t(−3.94), p = <.0001 t(6.75), p = <.0001 t(−3.99), p = <.0001
“Young old” (age < 75, n = 410) 117.9 (21.5) 108.4 (11.8) 3.52 (0.91) 1.12 (0.13) 130.5 (16.6) 1.47 (0.18) 8.26 (3.10) 0.09 (0.03)
“Old Old” (age > = 75, n = 480) 100.5 (21.5) 103.0 (13.4) 4.36 (1.25) 1.18 (0.18) 117.2 (17.8) 1.32 (0.18) 9.15 (3.26) 0.10 (0.04)
t- and p-value t(12.03), p = <.0001 t(6.31), p = <.0001 t(−9.99), p = <.0001 t(−6.28), p = <.0001 t(11.5), p = <.0001 t(−4.17), p = <.0001 t(11.81), p = <.0001 t(−4.54), p = <.0001
Men (n = 461) 110.1 (23.0) 102.6 (11.7) 3.82 (1.13) 1.18 (1.17) 128.7 (19.1) 1.42 (0.20) 9.45 (3.43) 0.10 (0.04)
Women (n = 429) 106.8 (23.2) 108.7 (13.5) 4.02 (1.20) 1.12 (1.10) 117.6 (15.9) 1.36 (0.18) 8.05 (2.94) 0.09 (0.03)
t- and p-value t(2.12), p = 0.0344 t(−7.14), p = <.0001 t(−2.6), p = 0.0094 t(5.99), p = <.0001 t(9.36), p = <.0001 t(6.54), p = <.0001 t(3.89), p = 0.0001 t(4.44), p = <.0001
  1. *A stride begins with the foot contact and ends with the subsequent foot contact of one foot.
  2. Significant differences are written bold.