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Table 2 A composite rating scale to categorise anticholinergic activity medicines (N = 195)

From: Anticholinergic burden quantified by anticholinergic risk scales and adverse outcomes in older people: a systematic review

High Moderate Low
Aceprometazine [25] (n = 1)   
Acepromazine [25] (n = 1)   
  Alimemazine (trimeprazine) [25] (n = 1) Alimemazine [24] (n = 1)
Alprazolam [25] (n = 1)   Alprazolam [9,22-24] (n = 4)
  Alverine [25] (n = 1) Alverine [24] (n = 1)
  Amantadine [19,24] (n = 2) Amantadine [9,22] (n = 2)
Amitriptyline [9,19,22-26] (n = 7)   
Amoxapine [24,25] (n = 2)   
   Ampicillin [9] (n = 1)
   Aripiprazole [24] (n = 1)
   Asenapine [24] (n = 1)
   Atenolol [22,24] (n = 2)
Atropine [9,19,22-24] (n = 5)   
   Azathioprine [9] (n = 1)
  Baclofen [19,22] (n = 2)  
Belladonna [22,25] (n = 2) Belladonna [24] (n = 1)  
   Benazepril [22] (n = 1)
Benzatropine/benztropine [9,19,24,26] (n = 4)   
   Betaxolol [22] (n = 1)
   Bisacodyl [23] (n = 1)
   Bromocriptine [9] (n = 1)
Brompheniramine [9,24] (n = 2)   
   Bupropion [22,24] (n = 2)
   Captopril [9,24] (n = 2)
  Carbamazepine [9,24] (n = 2) Carbamazepine [22] (n = 1)
   carbidopa [19,22,23] (n = 3)
Carbinoxamine [9,24] (n = 2)   
Carisoprodol [19] (n = 1)   
   Cefamandole [9] (n = 1)
   Cefoxitin [9] (n = 1)
   Celecoxib [23] (n = 1)
   Cephalothin [9] (n = 1)
  Cetirizine [19,22,23] (n = 3) Cetirizine [24] (n = 1)
   Chlordiazepoxide [9,22] (n = 2)
Chlorphenamine/chlorpheniramine [9,19,22-25] (n = 6)   
Chlorpromazine [9,19,22,24] (n = 4)   
   Chlorthalidone/chlortalidone [9,24] (n = 2)
  Cimetidine [9,19] (n = 2) Cimetidine [24] (n = 1)
   Citalopram [23,26] (n = 2)
Clemastine [9,24] (n = 2)   
   Clidinium [24] (n = 1)
   Clindamycin [9] (n = 1)
Clomipramine [9,24,25] (n = 3)   
   Clonazepam [9,23] (n = 2)
Clorazepate [25] (n = 1)   Clorazepate [9,24] (n = 2)
Clozapine [9,24,26] (n = 3) Clozapine [19] (n = 1)  
  Codeine [25] (n = 1) Codeine [9,22-24] (n = 4)
Colchicine [25] (n = 1)   Colchicine [24] (n = 1)
   Cortisone [9] (n = 1)
  Cyclobenzaprine [9,19,24] (n = 3) Cyclobenzaprine [22] (n = 1)
   Cycloserine [9] (n = 1)
   Cyclosporine [9] (n = 1)
Cyproheptadine [19,23] (n = 2) Cyproheptadine [9,24] (n = 2)  
Darifenacin [9,24] (n = 2)   
Desipramine [9,24] (n = 2) Desipramine [19,22] (n = 2)  
   Desloratadine [24] (n = 1)
   Dexamethasone [9] (n = 1)
Dexchlorpheniramine [23,25] (n = 2)   
   Dextromethorphan [22] (n = 1)
   Diazepam [9,22-24,26] (n = 5)
Dicyclomine [9,19,24] (n = 3)   
   Digitoxin [9] (n = 1)
Digoxin [25] (n = 1)   Digoxin [9,23,24,26] (n = 4)
   Diltiazem [9] (n = 1)
Dimenhydrinate [9,24] (n = 2)   
Diphenhydramine [9,19,22,24] (n = 4)   
   Dipyridamole [9,24] (n = 2)
  Disopyramide [9] (n = 1) Disopyramide [24] (n = 1)
   Divalproex sodium [9] (n = 1)
   Domperidone [23] (n = 1)
  Dothiepin/dosulepin [23] (n = 1)  
Doxepin [9,22-24,26] (n = 5)   
Doxylamine [24] (n = 1)   
Emepronium [26] (n = 1)   
   Entacapone [19] (n = 1)
   Escitalopram [23] (n = 1)
   Estazolam [9] (n = 1)
   Famotidine [9] (n = 1)
   Fentanyl [9,24] (n = 2)
Fesoterodine [24] (n = 1)   
  Fexofenadine [22,23] (n = 2)  
Flavoxate [9,24] (n = 2)   
   Fluoxetine [9,22,23,26] (n = 4)
Fluphenazine [19,23] (n = 2)   Fluphenazine [9] (n = 1)
   Flurazepam [9] (n = 1)
   Fluticasone-salmeterol [9] (n = 1)
   Fluvoxamine [9,23,24,26] (n = 4)
Furosemide [25] (n = 1)   Furosemide [9,24] (n = 2)
   Gentamicin [9] (n = 1)
   Guaifenesin [22] (n = 1)
  Haloperidol [23] (n = 1) Haloperidol [19,24] (n = 2)
Homatropine [22] (n = 1)   
   Hydralazine [9,24] (n = 2)
  Hydrocodone [22] (n = 1)  
   Hydrocortisone [9,24] (n = 2)
Hydroxyzine [9,19,24,25] (n = 4)   
Hyoscyamine [9,19,24] (n = 3)   
   Iloperidone [24] (n = 1)
Imipramine [9,19,22-25] (n = 6)   
Ipratropium [26] (n = 1)   
   Isosorbide [9,24] (n = 2)
   Ketotifen [9] (n = 1)
   Ketorolac [22] (n = 1)
   Ketotifen [9] (n = 1)
   Levocetirizine [24] (n = 1)
Levomepromazine [9,24,25] (n = 3)   
   Lithium [23] (n = 1)
  Loperamide [19] (n = 1) Loperamide [9,22-24] (n = 4)
  Loratadine [19] (n = 1) Loratadine [22-24] (n = 3)
   Lorazepam [9] (n = 1)
  Loxapine [9,24] (n = 2)  
   Lumiracoxib [23] (n = 1)
Maprotiline [25] (n = 1)   
Meclizine/meclizine [9,19,24] (n = 3)   
  Meperidine [9,24] (n = 2)  
   Metformin [23] (n = 1)
  Methadone [22] (n = 1)  
   Methocarbamol [19,22] (n = 2)
   Methotrexate [23] (n = 1)
  Methotrimeprazine [9,24] (n = 2)  
   Methylprednisolone [9] (n = 1)
   Metoclopramide [19,23] (n = 2)
   Metoprolol [22,24] (n = 2)
   Midazolam [9] (n = 1)
   Mirtazapine [19] (n = 1)
  Molindone [9,24] (n = 2)  
   Morphine [9,22,24] (n = 3)
   Naratriptan [23] (n = 1)
   Nefazodone [22] (n = 1)
  Nefopam [24] (n = 1)  
   Nifedipine [9,24] (n = 2)
   Nizatidine [9] (n = 1)
Nortriptyline [9,22,24] (n = 3) Nortriptyline [19,26] (n = 2)  
Olanzapine [24] (n = 1) Olanzapine [19,26] (n = 2) Olanzapine [9,22] (n = 2)
Opipramol [25] (n = 1)   
Orphenadrine [9,24-26] (n = 4)   
   Oxazepam [9,23] (n = 2)
  Oxcarbazepine [9,24] (n = 2)  
Oxybutynin [9,19,24-26] (n = 5) Oxybutynin [23] (n = 1)  
   Oxycodone [9,22,23] (n = 3)
   Paliperidone [24] (n = 1)
   Pancuronium [9] (n = 1)
Paroxetine [24] (n = 1) Paroxetine [22,23,26] (n = 3) Paroxetine [9,19] (n = 2)
Perphenazine [19,24] (n = 2) Perphenazine [22] (n = 1) Perphenazine [9] (n = 1)
   Phenelzine [9] (n = 1)
   Phenobarbital [22] (n = 1)
  Pimozide [9,24] (n = 2)  
   Piperacillin [9] (n = 1)
   Pramipexole [19] (n = 1)
   Prednisolone [9] (n = 1)
   Prednisone [9,24] (n = 2)
  Prochlorperazine [19,22,23] (n = 3) Prochlorperazine [9] (n = 1)
Procyclidine [9] (n = 1)   
  Promazine [26] (n = 1)  
Promethazine [9,19,24] (n = 3)   
Propantheline [9,24] (n = 2) Propantheline [22] (n = 1)  
Propiverine [24] (n = 1)   
  Propoxyphene [22] (n= 1)  
Protriptyline [9,23] (n = 2)   
  Pseudoephedrine [19,23] (n = 2)  
Pyrilamine [9] (n = 1)   
Quetiapine [24] (n = 1) Quetiapine [22] (n = 1) Quetiapine [19,26] (n = 2)
   Quinidine [24] (n = 1)
  Ranitidine [9,22] (n = 2) Ranitidine [19,23,24,26] (n = 4)
Reglan [22] (n = 1)   
   Risperidone [19,22-24] (n = 4)
   Robitussin [22] (n = 1)
Scopolamine(hyoscine) [9,22,24] (n = 3)   
   Selegiline [19] (n = 1)
   Sertraline [9,22] (n = 2)
Solifenacin [24] (n = 1)   
   Sumatriptan [23] (n = 1)
   Temazepam [9,19,23] (n = 3)
  Theophylline [23,25] (n = 2) Theophylline [9,24,26] (n = 3)
Thioridazine [9,19,22,24,26] (n = 5)   
Thiothixene [19] (n = 1)   Thiothixene [9] (n = 1)
Tizanidine [19] (n = 1)   
Tolterodine [9,22-25] (n = 5) Tolterodine [19] (n = 1)  
  Tramadol [22,23] (n = 2) Tramadol [9] (n = 1)
   Trandolapril [22] (n = 1)
   Trazodone [19,22,24] (n = 3)
   Triamcinolone [9] (n = 1)
   Triamterene [9,24] (n = 2)
   Triazolam [9,22] (n = 2)
Trifluoperazine [19,24] (n = 2)   Trifluoperazine [9] (n = 1)
Trihexyphenidyl [9,22,24-26] (n = 5)   
Trimipramine [9,24-26] (n = 4)   
Tropatepine [25] (n = 1)   
Trospium [24] (n = 1)   
   Valproic acid [9] (n = 1)
   Vancomycin [9] (n = 1)
   Venlafaxine [22-24] (n = 3)
   Warfarin [9] (n = 1)
   Ziprasidone [19] (n = 1)
   Zolmitriptan [23] (n = 1)
  1. Medicines in italics denote inconsistent validation.