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Table 3 Prevalence and associations between participants’ characteristics and frailty status in unadjusted and adjusted multinomial regression models

From: Prevalence and correlates of frailty among older adults: findings from the German health interview and examination survey

  Unadjusted model Adjusted modela
  Not frail versus Not frail versus
  Non-frail Pre-frail Frail Pre-frail Frail Pre-frail Frail
  n = 1139 n = 659 n = 45  
  % % % RRR (CI) RRR (CI) RRR (CI) RRR (CI)
Age groups in years
 65-69 36.8 33.1 17.9 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 70-74 45.0 40.3 40.3 0.99 (0.77-1.29) 1.85 (0.69-4.91) 0.94 (0.72-1.22)b 1.64 (0.64-4.18)b
 75-79 18.3 26.7 41.8 1.62 (1.15-2.29) 4.72 (1.79-12.41) 1.49 (1.04-2.13)b 4.03 (1.63-9.98)b
Sex
 men 47.9 43.9 41.6 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 women 52.1 56.1 58.4 1.17 (0.90-1.52) 1.29 (0.61-2.76) 1.08 (0.82-1.41)c 1.05 (0.50-2.19)c
Socioeconomic status (SES)
 low 19.9 32.4 56.7 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 medium 62.4 57.2 35.3 0.56 (0.41-0.78) 0.20 (0.10-0.40) 0.57 (0.41-0.79)d 0.21 (0.10-0.42)d
 high 17.7 10.4 8.0 0.36 (0.24-0.54) 0.16 (0.04-0.66) 0.38 (0.25-0.58)d 0.19 (0.05-0.75)d
Living alone
 no 78.2 76.2 69.8 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 yes 21.8 23.8 30.2 1.12 (0.84-1.49) 1.55 (0.73-3.31) 1.02 (0.76-1.37) 1.31 (0.57-3.01)
Poor social support
 no 88.3 78.1 56.0 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 yes 11.7 21.9 44.0 2.12 (1.43-3.15) 5.94 (2.75-12.83) 1.99 (1.34-2.95) 4.96 (2.21-11.12)
Self-reported lack of help
 no 97.6 91.6 76.1 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 yes 2.4 8.4 23.9 3.67 (2.11-6.38) 12.51 (4.97-31.45) 3.50 (1.96-6.25) 12.18 (4.73-31.35)
Current depressive symptoms
 no 97.2 90.7 73.5 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 yes 2.8 9.3 26.5 3.55 (2.04-6.16) 12.47 (5.09-30.56) 3.64 (2.03-6.53) 12.86 (4.47-37.03)
Mean Digit Symbol Substitution Test 46.0 41.4 32.6 0.98 (0.97-0.98) 0.93 (0.90-0.95) 0.98 (0.97-0.99)e 0.94 (0.91-0.97)f
Self-reported health (fair/ poor)
 no 79.3 63.5 22.6 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 yes 20.7 36.5 77.4 2.20 (1.67-2.92) 13.16 (5.21-33.20) 2.21 (1.66-2.94) 13.30 (5.15-34.31)
Chronic diseasesg
 mean 1.9 2.3 3.3 1.24 (1.13-1.36) 1.94 (1.57-2.40) 1.23 (1.11-1.35) 1.92 (1.56-2.35)
3 or more diseases
 no 73.2 60.0 39.7 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 yes 26.9 40.0 60.3 1.82 (1.42-2.33) 4.14 (1.91-8.97) 1.76 (1.63-2.26) 3.79 (1.72-8.31)
Polypharmacy
 no 58.5 48.3 14.2 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 yes 41.5 51.7 85.8 1.51 (1.20-1.89) 8.54 (3.35-21.77) 1.47 (1.17-1.86) 7.78 (2.92-20.72)
Falls (≥2) in past 12 months
 no 93.8 88.9 79.2 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 yes 6.2 11.1 20.8 1.89 (1.16-3.08) 3.97 (1.53-10.26) 1.84 (1.15-2.96) 4.31 (1.65-11.26)
Poor hearing
 no 94.4 93.6 74.9 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 yes 5.6 6.4 25.1 1.15 (0.71-1.87) 5.69 (2.27-14.23) 1.14 (0.71-1.84) 5.38 (2.17-13.35)
Poor vision
 no 97.7 91.4 88.7 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 yes 2.3 5.6 11.3 2.50 (1.30-4.79) 5.31 (1.53-18.42) 2.24 (1.20-4.14) 3.81 (1.09-13.34)
Currently smoking
 no 91.9 87.9 91.5 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 yes 8.1 12.1 8.5 1.56 (1.02-2.38) 1.06 (0.25-4.42) 1.65 (1.08-2.50) 1.32 (0.30-5.81)
Current alcohol consumption
 no 12.7 20.6 38.2 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 yes 87.3 79.4 61.8 0.56 (0.41-0.77) 0.24 (0.11-0.51) 0.61 (0.44-0.85) 0.30 (0.11-0.82)
  1. Figures are weighted population estimates expressed in per cent unless otherwise indicated. Not all percentages add to 100 due to rounding error.
  2. RRR: relative risk ratio.
  3. CI: 95% confidence interval.
  4. Ref.: reference category.
  5. aMultinomial logistic regression models for each variable adjusted for age, sex and low socio economic status (SES) unless otherwise stated, badjusted for sex and SES only, cadjusted for age and SES only, dadjusted for age and sex only, ealternatively adjusted for age, sex, education (not SES) RRR = 0.98, CI: 0.97-0.99, falternatively adjusted for age, sex, education (not SES) RRR = 0.92, CI: 0.90-0.95, gTen conditions included coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, chronic renal disease, cancer, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.