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Table 1 Characteristics of German Health and Examination Survey 2008–2011 (DEGS1) participants aged 65–79 years included in this study

From: Prevalence and correlates of frailty among older adults: findings from the German health interview and examination survey

  Men (n = 919) Women (n = 924) Total (n = 1843)
Age groups in years (%, CI)  
 65-69 36.3 (32.6-40.1) 33.6 (30.2-37.3) 34.8 (32.4-37.4)
 70-74 43.2 (39.2-47.2) 42.9 (39.0-46.9) 43.0 (40.1-46.0)
 75-79 20.6 (17.5-24.0) 23.4 (20.0-27.2) 22.1 (19.6-24.9)
Socioeconomic status (SES) (%, CI)  
 low 21.7 (17.9-26.2) 29.1 (24.7-33.9) 25.7 (22.3-29.4)
 medium 57.3 (52.8-61.7) 61.7 (57.2-66.0) 59.7 (56.1-63.1)
 high 21.0 (17.7-24.7) 9.2 (7.2-11.6) 14.6 (12.6-17.0)
Living alone (%, CI) 9.6 (7.3-12.6) 34.0 (29.8-38.4) 22.8 (20.1-25.7)
Poor social support (%, CI) 16.8 (13.3-21.0) 16.2 (13.1-19.9) 16.5 (14.1-19.2)
Self-reported lack of help (%, CI) 2.0 (1.3-3.1) 8.2 (6.2-10.8) 5.3 (4.2-6.8)
Current depressive symptoms (%, CI) 4.2 (2.8-6.2) 7.3 (5.2-10.2) 5.9 (4.5-7.6)
Digit Symbol Substitution Test (mean score; CI) 42.6 (41.3-43.9) 45.0 (43.6-46.5) 43.9 (42.9-44.9)
Self-rated health (fair/poor) (%, CI) 27.4 (23.4-31.8) 28.9 (25.1-33.2) 28.2 (25.4-31.3)
Chronic diseases (%, CI)  
 coronary heart disease 27.6 (23.7-31.8) 14.5 (11.9-17.6) 20.6 (18.2-23.2)
 stroke 7.2 (5.1-10.0) 6.0 (4.2-8.4) 6.5 (5.1-8.4)
 heart failure 13.2 (10.2-16.9) 12.3 (9.5-15.9) 12.7 (10.5-15.4)
 hypertension 70.3 (65.9-74.4) 71.6 (68.1-74.9) 71.0 (68.2-73.7)
 diabetes 21.0 (17.5-25.0) 18.6 (15.4-22.2) 19.7 (17.3-22.3)
 chronic renal disease 3.2 (2.2-4.8) 5.0 (3.3-7.5) 4.2 (3.0-5.7)
 cancer 15.8 (13.2-18.9) 14.6 (11.9-17.8) 15.2 (13.2-17.4)
 osteoarthritis 32.1 (28.3-36.2) 51.6 (47.7-55.4) 42.6 (39.9-45.3)
 rheumatoid arthritis 5.0 (3.0-8.2) 4.3 (3.0-6.0) 4.6 (3.4-6.1)
 osteoporosis 3.5 (2.4-5.3) 23.2 (19.4-27.5) 14.1 (12.0-16.5)
Mean number of chronic diseases (CI) 2.0 (1.8-2.1) 2.2 (2.1-2.3) (2.1 2.0-2.2)
Number of chronic diseases (%, CI)  
none 12.5 (9.7-15.9) 6.8 (5.1-8.9) 9.4 (7.7-11.4)
1 28.0 (24.4-31.9) 27.1 (23.4-31.2) 27.5 (24.9-30.2)
2 29.8 (25.9-34.0) 30.6 (26.8-34.8) 30.2 (27.5-33.1)
3 or more 29.7 (25.7-34.0) 35.5 (31.5-39.7) 32.8 (29.8-36.1)
Polypharmacy (≥5 prescribed medicines) (%) 42.1 (37.8-46.5) 50.5 (46.6-54.3) 46.6 (43.7-49.5)
Falls (≥2) in past 12 months (%, CI) 6.1 (4.3-8.5) 10.5 (8.2-13.4) 8.5 (6.9-10.3)
Poor hearing (%, CI) 1.2 (0.6-2.2) 6.1 (4.2-8.7) 3.8 (2.8-5.3)
Poor vision (%, CI) 7.4 (5.5-9.8) 5.6 (4.0-7.8) 6.4 (5.0-8.1)
Health risk behaviours (%, CI)  
body mass index (BMI), kg/m2  
 underweight (BMI < 18.5) 0.1 (0.0-0.4) 1.3 (0.4-4.3) 0.7 (0.2-2.3)
 normal (BMI 18.5 < 25) 17.0 (14.2-20.2) 22.2 (19.2-25.4) 19.7 (17.7-21.9)
 overweight (BMI 25 to <30) 51.4 (46.9-55.8) 37.7 (33.9-41.8) 44.1 (41.2-46.9)
 obese (BMI ≥ 30) 31.6 (27.2-36.4) 38.9 (35.0-42.9) 35.5 (32.4-38.7)
currently smoking 10.9 (8.6-13.7) 8.6 (6.5-11.3) 9.7 (8.1-11.4)
current alcohol consumption 91.4 (88.6-93.6) 77.5 (73.2-81.3) 84.0 (81.2-86.5)
  1. Figures are weighted population estimates expressed in per cent unless otherwise indicated.
  2. CI: 95% confidence interval.
  3. Not all percentages add to 100 due to rounding error.