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Table 2 Relative risk (95% CI) of fall-induced hip or pelvic fracture within 1 hour after emotional stress (n = 122).

From: Emotional stress as a trigger of falls leading to hip or pelvic fracture. Results from the ToFa study – a case-crossover study among elderly people in Stockholm, Sweden

    Emotion   
Analytic strategy Expected odds based on   Anger Sadness Stress
  Time at risk Exposed time Number of exposed cases = 4 Number of exposed cases = 2 Number of exposed case = 6
A Standing/walking time1 Exact calculation5 12.2
(2.7–54.7)
5.7
(1.1–28.7)
20.6
(4.5–93.5)
B All2 Usual frequency6 22.5
(7.4–68.8)
3.3
(0.7–15.0)
15.1
(3.8–59.8)
C Time awake3 Usual frequency6 14.3
(4.7–44.0)
2.4
(0.5–10.8)
8.8
(2.3–34.6)
D Standing/walking4 Usual frequency6 3.9
(1.2–12.7)
0.8
(0.2–3.2)
3.7
(1.0–13.8)
E Standing/walking4 Usual frequency corrected for time at risk7 14.3
(4.7–44.0)
2.4
(0.5–10.8)
8.8
(2.3–34.6)
  1. Five different analytic strategies varying the bases for the expected odds.
  2. 1 Time spent walking or standing during the 24 hour period prior to injury
  3. 2 Total time per year (8760 hours)
  4. 3 Time awake per year (estimated from time from going to bed until waking up)
  5. 4 Yearly time spent walking or standing (estimated from time spent walking or standing during the 48 hour period prior to injury)
  6. 5 Sum of the time at risk during each hazard period following an episode of trigger exposure. in the 24 hour period prior to injury.
  7. 6 Annual frequency of exposure
  8. 7 Corrected annual frequency of exposure under the assumption that exposure occurs independently of time at risk, correction is made of the frequency of exposure to correspond to the proportion of time at risk (of time awake).