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Table 2 Association between insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and gait speed in men and women

From: Inverse association between insulin resistance and gait speed in nondiabetic older men: results from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002

  Models with HOMA-IR as a continuous variable
  Men Women
   β* (SE) P value    β* (SE) P value  
Model 1   -0.035 (0.013) 0.007    -0.018 (0.013) 0.172  
Model 2   -0.033 (0.013) 0.010    -0.014 (0.013) 0.289  
Model 3   -0.040 (0.013) 0.003    -0.011 (0.013) 0.377  
Model 4   -0.042 (0.012) 0.001    -0.012 (0.013) 0.364  
  Models with HOMA-IR by increasing quartiles
  Men Women
  Quartile comparison β† (SE) P value P for trend Quartile comparison β† (SE) P value P for trend
Model 1 Q2 v.s. Q1 -0.013 (0.026) 0.616 0.035 Q2 v.s. Q1 0.049 (0.027) 0.072 0.446
  Q3 v.s. Q1 -0.043 (0.029) 0.141   Q3 v.s. Q1 -0.032 (0.031) 0.304  
  Q4 v.s. Q1 -0.066 (0.033) 0.046   Q4 v.s. Q1 -0.001 (0.035) 0.987  
Model 2 Q2 v.s. Q1 -0.010 (0.026) 0.711 0.056 Q2 v.s. Q1 0.052 (0.027) 0.057 0.521
  Q3 v.s. Q1 -0.039 (0.029) 0.177   Q3 v.s. Q1 -0.025 (0.030) 0.403  
  Q4 v.s. Q1 -0.058 (0.033) 0.078   Q4 v.s. Q1 0.004 (0.033) 0.905  
Model 3 Q2 v.s. Q1 -0.015 (0.027) 0.567 0.024 Q2 v.s. Q1 0.055 (0.025) 0.042 0.700
  Q3 v.s. Q1 -0.046 (0.030) 0.120   Q3 v.s. Q1 -0.020 (0.030) 0.504  
  Q4 v.s. Q1 -0.072 (0.033) 0.030   Q4 v.s. Q1 0.013 (0.033) 0.702  
Model 4 Q2 v.s. Q1 -0.006 (0.026) 0.786 0.019 Q2 v.s. Q1 0.051 (0.026) 0.054 0.663
  Q3 v.s. Q1 -0.039 (0.028) 0.167   Q3 v.s. Q1 -0.018 (0.030) 0.556  
  Q4 v.s. Q1 -0.072 (0.032) 0.024   Q4 v.s. Q1 0.008 (0.033) 0.807  
  1. Adjusted covariates:
  2. Model 1 = Age, race, body mass index categories, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and use of walking devices
  3. Model 2 = Model 1 + co-morbidities (hypertension, chronic lung disease, heart disease, and arthritis)
  4. Model 3 = Model 2 + markers of nutrition and cardiovascular risk (natural-log-transformed levels of folate, vitamin B12, total cholesterol, homocysteine and C-reactive protein).
  5. Model 4 = Model 3 + peak leg strength
  6. * Parameter estimates (β) can be interpreted as differences in mean gait speed (m/sec) for each increment of one standard deviation in the log transformed HOMA-IR among men (or women).
  7. † Parameter estimates (β) can be interpreted as differences in mean gait speed (m/sec) compared male (or female) subjects in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles of HOMA-IR to those in the lowest quartile.
  8. Abbreviations: homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR; SE, standard error.
  9. The cut-off values HOMA-IR quartiles among the men were: quartile 1 (<1.80), quartile 2 (1.80-2.51), quartile 3 (2.52-3.69), and quartile 4 (>3.69); while among the women the cut-off values were: quartile 1 (<1.48), quartile 2 (1.48-2.28), quartile 3 (2.29-3.52), and quartile 4 (>3.52).