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Table 2 Prevalence, incidence, fall free survival and risk estimates of prospectively reported falls during follow-up year

From: Falls in advanced old age: recalled falls and prospective follow-up of over-90-year-olds in the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort study

Study participant characteristics Prevalence:
How common is falling or repeated falling
>90 years?
Incidence:
How frequently do
>90-year-olds fall?
Fall free survival:
How long till a fall?
  n Reported
≥ 1 fall in
follow/up
n (%)
Relative Risk
– unadjusted
RR (95% C.I.)
Reported
≥ 2 falls in
follow/up
n (%)
Relative Risk
– unadjusted
RR (95% C.I.)
N° of
f/up
falls
P-yrs
of
f/up
F/up
falls
/p-yr
Incidence
Rate Ratio
– unadjusted
IRR (95% C.I.)
Time to
1st fall
Mean (SD)
Hazard Ratio
-unadjusted
HR (95% C.I.)
AGE            
Each additional year > 91 years   - 1.0 (1.0–1.1) - 1.1 (1.0–1.2) - - - 1.04 (1.0–1.2)   -
AGE-BAND            
91–94 years old 74 43 (58) 1.0 31 (42) 1.0 174 68.2 2.6 1.0 130(89) 1.0
≥ 95 years old 36 23 (64) 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 18 (50) 1.2 (0.7–1.7) 91 27.5 3.3 1.5 (0.7–3.1) 75(66) 1.6 (0.9–2.6)
GENDER            
Men 20 10 (50) 1.0 7 (35) 1.0 54 17.2 3.1 1.0 108(92) 1.0
Women 90 56 (62) 1.3 (0.8–1.6) 42 (47) 1.3 (0.7–2.0) 211 78.5 2.7 0.8 (0.3–2.3) 111(85) 1.3 (0.7–2.6)
PLACE OF RESIDENCE            
Living in the community
(house, flat or granny flat)
62 35 (57) 1.0 25 (40) 1.0 138 56.1 2.5 1.0 116(96) 1.0
Living in any supported setting
(Sheltered housing or institution)
48 31 (65) 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 24 (50) 1.3 (0.8–1.7) 127 39.7 3.2 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 104(73) 1.3 (0.8–2.1)
EDUCATION            
Left school aged 14 yrs or less 67 38 (57) 1.0 26 (39) 1.0 118 57.1 2.1 1.0 126(95) 1.0
Full-time education aged 15+ yrs 43 28 (65) 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 23 (54) 1.4 (0.9–1.8) 147 38.6 3.8 1.8 (0.9–3.7) 89(66) 1.4 (0.8–2.2)
SOCIAL CLASS            
Manual 55 34 (62) 1.0 21 (38) 1.0 95 46.5 2.0 1.0 120(86) 1.0
Non-manual 51 30 (59) 1.0 (0.6–1.2) 27 (53) 1.4 (0.9–1.9) 163 46.2 3.5 1.9 (1.0–3.6) 103(87) 0.9 (0.5–1.5)
FALL HISTORY            
Not fallen in year before interview 46 23 (50) 1.0 14 (30) 1.0 47 40.8 1.2 1.0 132(92) 1.0
Fallen at least once in past year 63 42 (67) 1.3 (0.9–1.6) 34 (54) 1.8 (1.1–2.4) 216 54.6 4.0 3.6 (2.0–6.3) 101(81) 1.7 (1.0–2.8)
Fallen only once or not past year 72 32 (44) 1.0 21 (29) 1.0 80 62.4 1.3 1.0 137(89) 1.0
Fallen > once in past year 37 33 (89) 2.0 (1.6–2.2) 27 (73) 2.5 (1.8–3.0) 183 33.0 5.6 4.7 (2.6–8.7) 88(75) 3.5 (2.1–5.7)
TOTAL SAMPLE 110 66 (60)   49 (45)   265 95.7 2.8   111(85)