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Table 2 Operationalization of frailty characteristics in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) [15] and in the Lausanne cohort Lc65+ Study.

From: The Lausanne cohort Lc65+: a population-based prospective study of the manifestations, determinants and outcomes of frailty

  Cardiovascular Health Study Lausanne cohort Lc65+ Study
Characteristic of frailty
Shrinking Unintentional weight loss >10 lbs in prior year Any reported unintentional weight loss in prior year
Weakness Grip strength: lowest 20% by gender and body mass index Grip strength: application of CHS gender and body mass index specific cut-off values
Poor endurance, exhaustion Exhaustion self-report: responds a moderate amount of the time or most of the time to either statement "I felt everything I did was an effort" or "I could not get going" in the last week Exhaustion self-report: responds much to "Did you have feelings of generalized weakness, weariness, lack of energy in the last four weeks?"
Slowness Walking time/15 feet: slowest 20% by gender and height Walking time/20 meters: application of CHS gender and height specific cut-off values
Low activity Physical activity self-report: lowest 20% Kcals/week expenditure, by gender, estimated from the short version of the Minnesota Leisure Time Activity questionnaire Physical activity self-report: less than 20 minutes of sport activity once a week and less than 30 cumulated minutes walk per day 3 times a week and avoidance of stairs climbing or light loads carrying in daily activities
Classification of frailty
Non-frail or robust 0 criterion present 0 criterion present
Intermediate, possibly pre-frail 1–2 criteria present 1–2 criteria present
Frail 3–5 criteria present 3–5 criteria present