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Table 5 Mortality Hazard Rates Ratios for social relationships adjusted for health and disability, in men and women combined

From: The effect of social relationships on survival in elderly residents of a Southern European community: a cohort study

ALL (n = 1174; deceased = 352)a Network model Psychosocial mechanisms model Complete model
Sex:    
Women 1 1 1
Men 1.92 (1.50–2.46) 1.92 (1.50–2.46) 2.20 (1.71–2.84)
Age 1.10 (1.08–1.11) 1.09 (1.07–1.11) 1.08 (1.06–1.10)
Education:    
   Primary completed 1 1 1
   Primary not completed 1.16 (0.88–1.51) 1.18 (0.90–1.54) 1.01 (0.77–1.34)
Family ties index:    
   < 3 1 1 1
   3 0.73 (0.57–0.93) 0.79 (0.62–1.01) 0.77 (0.60–0.98)
Friends contacted:    
   No 1 1 1
   Yes 0.97 (0.78–1.21) 1.05 (0.84–1.32) 1.12 (0.89–1.41)
Social participation index 0.80 (0.71–0.91) 0.82 (0.73–0.93) 0.88 (0.78–1.00)
Confidant:    
   No/does not know   1 1
   Yes   0.72 (0.58–0.90) 0.75 (0.60–0.95)
Role in significant others' lives   0.79 (0.67–0.93) 0.86 (0.73–1.02)
Physical activity:    
   Moderate/vigorous    1
   Light    1.38 (1.06–1.79)
Co-morbidity    1.03 (0.97–1.10)
Square root of depressive symptoms    1.04 (0.96–1.13)
Cognitive score    1.20 (1.07–1.35)
Self-perceived health:    
   Very good/good    1
   Average/poor/very poor    1.32 (1.01–1.74)
Disability:    
   Independent    1
   Not independent for IADLs    1.17 (0.86–1.59)
   Not independent for ADLs    1.10 (0.77–1.58)
  1. aNon-weighted results. Bold: indicates results significant at a 95% level. ADLs: Activities of daily living. IADLs: Instrumental activities of daily living.