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Table 2 Distribution of potential risk factors for mortality in the total population and separately by sex

From: The effect of social relationships on survival in elderly residents of a Southern European community: a cohort study

  Total n = 1328a Men n = 574a (43.2%; 95% CI: 40.6–45.9) Women n = 754a (56.8%; 95% CI: 54.1–59.4) p value
Ageb 71.5 (71.0–72.0) 70.8 (69.9–71.4) 72.3 (71.6–73.1) <0.001
Education     
   Primary completed 21.2 (19.0–23.4) 30.7 (26.9–34.4) 14.0 (11.6–16.5) <0.001
   Primary not completed 63.3 (60.7–65.8) 61.1 (57.2–65.1) 64.9 (61.6–68.4)  
   Illiterate 15.5 (13.6–17.5) 8.2 (5.9–10.4) 21.1 (18.2–24.0)  
Marital status     
   Married 63.7 (61.1–66.3) 85.3 (82.4–88.2) 47.3 (43.7–50.8) <0.001
   Single 3.6 (2.5–4.5) 1.4 (0.4–2.3) 5.2 (3.6–6.7)  
   Widowed or separated 32.7 (30.2–35.3) 13.3 (10.5–16.0) 47.5 (44.0–51.1)  
Living arrangements     
   Alone 12.5 (10.7–14.3) 5.6 (3.7–7.5) 17.8 (15.0–20.5) <0.001
   Only with spouse 42.7 (40.0–45.4) 56.4 (52.2–60.3) 32.4 (29.0–35.7)  
   With children without spouse 20.5 (18.3–22.7) 8.2 (5.9–10.4) 29.8 (26.6–33.1)  
   With spouse and children 20.3 (18.2–22.5) 27.9 (24.2–31.5) 14.6 (12.1–17.1)  
   With others who are not the spouse or children 3.9 (2.9–5.0) 1.9 (0.8–3.0) 5.4 (3.8–7.1)  
Family ties index (0–3) b 3 (3-3) 3 (3-3) 2 (2-2) <0.001
Social participation index (0–3) c 1.7 (1.6–1.7) 1.8 (1.7–1.9) 1.6 (1.6–1.7) <0.001
Contacts with friends 48.0 (45.3–50.7) 55.7 (51.7–59.8) 42.0 (38.5–45.6) <0.001
Confidant 70.6 (68.2–73.1) 70.2 (66.5–74.0) 71.0 (67.7–74.2) 0.77
Average received emotional support (0–3,5) b 2.9 (2.9–2.9) 2.9 (2.9–3.0) 2.9 (2.8–3.0) 0.20
Average role in significant others' lives (0–3) b 2.2 (2.2-2.2) 2.3 (2.2–2.3) 2.2 (2.1–2.2) 0.01
Physical activity     
   Light 24.3 (22.0–26.6) 16.6 (13.5–19.6) 30.2 (27.0–33.5) <0.001
   Moderate 72.7 (70.3–75.1) 79.6 (76.3–82.9) 67.4 (64.0–70.7)  
   Vigorous 3.0 (2.1–3.9) 3.8 (2.3–5.4) 2.4 (1.3–3.5)  
Depressive symptoms (0–60) b 9 (8–9) 6 (6–7) 12 (11–13) <0.001
Comorbidity (0–10) c 3.3 (3.2–3.4) 2.8 (2.7–2.9) 3.7 (3.6–3.8)  
Prueba Cognitiva de Leganés (Cognitive Testing in Leganés) (0–32) b,d 26 (26-26) 26 (26-26) 26 (25–26) 0.03
Self-perceived health     
   Very good/good 31.7 (29.2–34.2) 41.2 (37.3–45.3) 24.4 (21.3–27.5) <0.001
   Average 50.1 (47.5–52.8) 47.0 (43.0–51.1) 52.5 (49.0–56.1)  
   Poor/very poor 18.2 (16.1–20.2) 11.8 (9.2–14.5) 23.1 (20.1–26.1)  
Disability     
   Independent for ADLs and IADLs 48.1 (45.4–50.7) 58.5 (54.5–62.6) 40.1 (36.6–43.6) <0.001
   Not independent for IADLs 30.8 (28.3–33.3) 28.6 (24.9–32.3) 32.5 (29.2–35.8)  
   Not independent for ADLs 21.2 (19.0–23.4) 12.9 (10.2–15.6) 27.5 (24.3–30.6)  
  1. aWeighted results. bMedian and its 95% confidence interval. cMean and its 95% confidence interval. dNot transformed data (a higher score means a better cognitive function). CI: Confidence interval. ADLs: Activities of Daily Living. IADLs: Instrumental Activities of Daily Living.