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Table 2 Summary Odds Ratios for Predictors of Nursing Home Admission in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

From: Predicting nursing home admission in the U.S: a meta-analysis

Predictor Data Sources Included (% of Participants Who Entered Nursing Home) Pooled Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) PValue for Heterogeneity
ADLs LSOA(14.6) [10], EPESE-IOWA(11.9) [34], NLTCS (14.8) [24] 1.11 (1.07–1.16) .73
1–2 ADLs (versus 0 ADLs) EPESE-EB(4.0) [21], EPESE-NH(9.0) [21], EPESE-IOWA(12.0) [21], NLTCS (14.8) [15], LSOA(n/a) [11] 2.45 (2.02–2.97) .87
ADLs >= 1 MHCPS(9.1) [33], GAO(25.4) [35] 1.88 (.86–4.08) .01
ADLs >= 3 EPESE-EB(4.0) [21], EPESE-NH(9.0) [21], EPESE-IOWA(12.0) [21], NLTCS(14.8) [15], LSOA(n/a) [11] 3.25 (2.59–4.09) .30
Age MHCPS(9.1) [36], LSOA(14.6) [10], EPESE-EB(4.0) [21], EPESE-NH(9.0) [21], EPESE-IOWA(12.0) [21], MEHCP(24.4) [26], NLTCS(8.0) [23], AHEAD(9.7) [28], GAO(25.4) [35] 1.11 (1.08–1.14) .00
Age squared MS(2.9) [32], EPESE-IOWA(11.9) [34], AHEAD [28] 1.00 (1.00–1.01) .00
Available informal caregiver LSOA(14.6) [10], NLTCS(8.0) [23], GAO(25.4) [35] 1.23 (1.04–1.46) .57
Cognitive impairment NLTCS(16.9) [13], MEHCP(24.4) [26], MHCPS(9.1) [37] 2.54 (1.44–4.51) .04
Education MHCPS(9.1) [36], EPESE-IOWA(11.9) [34], GAO(25.4) [35] 1.03 (.97–1.08) .20
Female MHCPS(9.1) [36], LSOA(14.6) [10], EPESE-EB(4.0) [21], EPESE-NH(9.0) [21], EPESE-IOWA(12.0) [21], NLTCS(14.8) [15], AHEAD(9.7) [28], GAO(25.4) [35] .97 (.87–1.08) .02
Formal help LSOA(14.6) [10], NLTCS(14.8) [15] 1.23 (.93–1.62) .47
Subjective health MHCPS(9.1) [36], EPESE-IOWA(11.9) [34], LSOA(3.9) [27] .90 (.58–1.39) .00
Homeowner LSOA(14.6) [10], NLTCS(16.9) [13] .82 (.71–.95) .21
Prior hospitalization LSOA(14.6) [10], NLTCS(16.9) [13], EPESE-IOWA(11.9) [34] 1.19 (1.07–1.33) .67
IADLs LSOA(14.6) [10], NLTCS(8.0) [23] .98 (.71–1.36) .00
Income NLTCS [11], EPESE-IOWA(11.9) [34], AHEAD(9.7) [28], GAO(25.4) [35] .95 (.83–1.08) .00
Annual income > $5,000 (vs. $5,000–$10,000) EPESE-EB(4.0) [21], EPESE-NH(9.0) [21], EPESE-IOWA(12.0) [21] 1.02 (.78–1.33) .82
Annual income < $5,000 (vs. $5,000–$10,000) EPESE-EB(4.0) [21], EPESE-NH(9.0) [21], EPESE-IOWA(12.0) [21] 1.45 (1.15–1.83) .70
Annual income missing (vs. $5,000–$10,000) EPESE-EB(4.0) [21], EPESE-NH(9.0) [21], EPESE-IOWA(12.0) [21] 1.72 (1.23–2.39) .16
Lives alone MHCPS(9.1) [36], EPESE-EB [21], EPESE-NH [21], EPESE-IOWA [21], NLTCS(15.7) [14], LSOA(3.9) [27], GAO(25.4) [35] 1.91 (1.55–2.35) .02
Lives with others, no spouse EPESE-EB(4.0) [21], EPESE-NH(9.0) [21], EPESE-IOWA(12.0) [21] 1.54 (.91–2.63) .12
Married LSOA(14.6) [10], EPESE-IOWA(11.9) [34], AHEAD(9.7) [28] .63 (.41–.95) .01
Medicaid-eligible MHCPS(9.1) [36], MS(2.9) [32], LSOA(14.6) [10], NLTCS(14.8) [15] 1.21 (.89–1.65) .00
Number of children LSOA(14.6) [10], NLTCS(14.8) [24] .88 (.80–.97) .00
Prior nursing home use EPESE-EB(4.0) [21], EPESE-NH(9.0) [21], EPESE-IOWA(12.0) [21], MHCPS(2.9) [33], NLTCS(14.8) [15] 3.47 (1.89–6.37) .00
SPMSQ >= 4 errors EPESE-EB(4.0) [21], EPESE-NH(9.0) [21], EPESE-IOWA(12.0) [21] 2.33 (1.80–3.00) .48
SPMSQ missing EPESE-EB(4.0) [21], EPESE-NH(9.0) [21], EPESE-IOWA(12.0) [21] 1.94 (.68–5.51) .01
White (vs. all other races/ethnicities) LSOA(14.6) [10], NLTCS(15.7) [14], AHEAD(9.7) [28] 1.61 (1.22–2.11) .04
  1. NOTE: ADL = activities of daily living; IADL = instrumental activities of daily living