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Table 2 Cohort descriptors

From: A perturbation-based balance training program for older adults: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

General domain Specific domain Instrument
Anthropometrics   Weight, height, arm span, and waist and hip circumference
Sensation Vision High- and low-contrast visual acuity§
   Edge contrast sensitivity (Melbourne Edge Test)§
   Depth perception§
  Vibration sense 200 Hz vibration at the knee§
  Proprioception Joint position matching task, left and right knee angle§
  Touch sensitivity Monofilament test at the plantar heel [83]
  Vestibular Vertical X-Writing Test (proxy measure) [84]
Musculoskeletal Isometric strength Ankle dorsiflexion§
   Knee extension §
  Lower-limb power Repeated Step-Up (proxy measure) [79]
  Flexibility Sit-and-reach test [78]
Neuromotor Coordination Finger-to-nose touch test [85]
  Simple reaction time Finger press§
   Foot pedal§
Cognitive Cognitive function Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (sMMSE) [63]
  Memory and recall Supraspan forward digit recall with motor component [86]
  Visuospatial memory Backward digit recall [87]
Balance & mobility Static balance Spontaneous postural sway, measured at pelvis; four conditions: eyes open or closed, standing on firm surface or foam§
  Dynamic balance Coordinated stability§ (volitional centre-of-mass movement around a designated course)
   Maximal balance range§ (range of forward and backward lean)
  Mobility Timed Up and Go [77]
Health and lifestyle General health Medical Outcomes Study, Short form (MOS SF-36) [88]
  Falls history Custom-designed questionnaire
  Exercise behaviour Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) [89]
  Activities of daily living Instrumental Activities of Daily Living [90]
Psychometrics Balance confidence Activity-specific Balance Confidence questionnaire (ABC) [62]
  Trait anxiety Endler Multi-dimensional Anxiety Scale – Trait (EMAS-T) [91]
  State anxiety†‡ Endler Multi-dimensional Anxiety Scale – State (EMAS-S) [91]
  Depression Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) [92]
  Personality Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFITM) [93]
  Fear of falling and activity restriction Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (SAFFE) [94]
  1. These tests will be completed pre- and post-intervention
  2. This questionnaire is administered immediately following balance testing
  3. §These tests are part of the FallScreen© assessment [65, 95]