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Table 2 Criteria used in overall quality judgement

From: Pain in elderly people with severe dementia: A systematic review of behavioural pain assessment tools

Aspect Score
Origin of items 2 if items were specially collected for use in elderly people with dementia/CI
  1 if items were modified for use in elderly people with dementia/CI
  0 if items originated from a scale developed for another population
Number of participants* 2 if N => 100 and the number of elderly people with dementia included was considerable relative to the number of items/variables or 50 < N < 100 and corrected for multiple testing
  1 if 50 < N < 100 and the number of elderly people with dementia included was considerable relative to the number of items/variables or N < 50 and corrected for multiple testing
  0 if N < 50, not corrected for multiple testing and small number of elderly people with dementia included
Content validity 2 if scale seems to cover all important items/dimensions (in the reviewers' opinion): pain items were collected for the specific population and different sources/methods were used to collect items
  1 if the scale seems to cover important items/dimensions to a moderate extent (in the reviewers' opinion): items were adapted to the population and different sources/methods were used to collect items
  0 if the scale does not seem to cover the important items/dimensions (in the reviewers' opinion)
Criterion validity 2 if correlates acceptable to high (r > .60) according to the 'gold standard' or acceptable according to a 'silver standard' and sensitivity/specificity is determined to be acceptable
  1 if correlates moderate-acceptable (.40 < r < .60) according to the 'gold standard' or acceptable according to a 'silver standard'
  0 if correlates low (r < .40) or no information is provided
Construct validity in relation to other pain tool 2 if correlates with other pain measures acceptable to high (r > .60)
1 if correlates with other pain measures are moderate (r > .40 < .60)
0 if correlations are low (r <,40) or no information is provided
Construct validity II differentiation 2 if the scale differentiates well (in the reviewers' opinion) between pain and no pain, calm and distressed, pre- and post-medication etc.
  1 if the scale differentiates moderately well (in the reviewers' opinion) between pain and no pain, pre- and post-medication
  0 if the scale does not differentiate or no information is provided
Homogeneity* 2 if .70 < alpha < .90
  1 if alpha > .90 or > .60 alpha <.70
  0 if alpha < .60 or no information is provided
Inter-rater reliability # $ 2 if reliability coefficient >.80
  1 if .60 < reliability coefficient < .80
  0 if reliability coefficient < .60 or no information is provided
Intra-rater and/or test-retest reliability $ 2 if reliability coefficient >.80
1 if .60 < reliability coefficient < .80
  0 if reliability coefficient < .60 or no information is provided
Feasibility 2 if scale is short, manageable with instructions, scoring interpretation
  1 if scale is manageable (one format)
  0 if scale is more complex
  1. Total score ranges from 0 to 20
  2. # The type of reliability analysis is not specified in the criteria used, although it influences the value of the coefficient
  3. * The number of items in the scale is not specified in relation to this criterion although it influences the value of the coefficient
  4. $ item scores 0 if based on interview (instead of e.g. behavioural observations)