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Table 1 Patient characteristics-skeletal muscle relaxant

From: Association of skeletal muscle relaxers and antihistamines on mortality, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits in elderly patients: a nationwide retrospective cohort study

Variable N(%) Unmatched characteristics Matched Demographic Characteristics (1:1 propensity-scored matching)
  Incident Muscle Relaxant Use No Muscle Relaxant Use P value Incident Muscle Relaxant Use No Muscle Relaxant Use P value
n = 27786 n = 1779618   n = 27783 n = 27783
Age Groups       
  65-74 16216 (58.4%) 803689 (45.2%) <0.001 16213 (58.4%) 16205 (58.3%) 0.994
  75-84 10207 (36.7%) 818252 (46%)   10207 (36.7%) 10210 (36.8%)
  85+ 1363 (4.9%) 157677 (8.9%)   1363 (4.9%) 1368 (4.9%)
Gender (female) 668 (2.4%) 28458 (1.6%) <0.001 665 (2.4%) 637 (2.3%) 0.432
Race/Ethnicity       
  White 19072 (68.6%) 1173582 (66%) <0.001 19072 (68.7%) 19083 (68.7%) 1.00
  Black 2841 (10.2%) 110042 (6.2%)   2839 (10.2%) 2838 (10.2%)
  Hispanic 1854 (6.7%) 54433 (3.1%)   1853 (6.7%) 1854 (6.7%)
  Other 393 (1.4%) 22436 (1.3%)   393 (1.4%) 391 (1.4%)
  Unknown/missing 3626 (13.1%) 419125 (23.6%)   3626 (13.1%) 3617 (13%)
Poverty Status       
Under the poverty limit 20873 (75.1%) 1038801 (58.4%) <0.001 20870 (75.1%) 20886 (75.2%) 0.895
Number of Medications       
  0-5 7900 (28.4%) 871000 (48.9%) <0.001 7900 (28.4) 7900 (28.4) 1.00
  6-8 6811 (24.5%) 459144 (25.8%)   6810 (24.5%) 6808 (24.5%)
  9-11 5601 (20.2%) 249228 (14%)   5601 (20.2%) 5595 (20.1%)
  >12 7474 (26.9%) 200246 (11.3%)   7472 (26.9%) 7480 (26.9%)
Number of Physical Comorbidities       
  0-1 5107 (18.4%) 508737 (28.6%) <0.001 5107 (18.4%) 5123 (18.4%) 0.996
  2-3 12041 (43.3%) 844548 (47.5%)   12040 (43.3%) 12040 (43.3%)
  4-5 7387 (26.6%) 329098 (18.5%)   7385 (26.6%) 7385 (26.6%)
  6+ 3251 (11.7%) 97235 (5.5%)   3251 (11.7%) 3235 (11.7%)
Number of Psychiatric Comorbidities       
  0 22267 (80.1%) 1555665 (87.4%) <0.001 22267 (80.1%) 22263 (80.1%) 0.993
  1 4093 (14.7%) 179695 (10.1%)   4091 (14.7%) 4099 (14.7%)
  2+ 1426 (5.1%) 44258 (2.5%)   1425 (5.1%) 1421 (5.1%)
ED visits in 2005 8439 (30.4%) 243864 (13.7%) <0.001 8436 (30.4%) 8441 (30.4%) 0.963
Hospital admissions in 2005 3050 (11%) 96276 (5.4%) <0.001 3049 (11%) 3046 (11%) 0.968
Geriatric visits in 2005 553 (2%) 42550 (2.4%) <0.001 553 (2%) 551 (2%) 0.952
Primary Care visits       
  0-1 3639 (13.1%) 478963 (26.9%) <0.001 3639 (13.1%) 3639 (13.1%) 0.993
  2-4 14736 (53%) 991503 (55.7%)   14736 (53%) 14749 (53.1%)
  5+ 9411 (33.9%) 309152 (17.4%)   9411 (33.9%) 9398 (33.8%)
Outcomes       
Death within 1 year 1414 (5.1%) 79589 (4.5%) <0.001 1414 (5.1%) 1613 (5.8%) <0.001
Emergency department visit within 1 year 11169 (40.2%) 232937 (13.1%) <0.001 11169 (40.2%) 6399 (23.0%) <0.001
Hospitalization within 1 year 3613 (13%) 83505 (4.7%) <0.001 3613 (13%) 2430 (8.8%) <0.001
Emergency department visit for fall within 1 year 384 (1.4%) 6487 (0.4%) <0.001 384 (1.4%) 176 (0.63%) <0.001
Hospitalization for fall within 1 year 67 (0.2%) 1625 (0.1%) <0.001 67 (0.24%) 46 (0.17%) 0.048
Death emergency department visit or hospitalization within 1 year (composite) 12365 (44.5%) 308148 (17.3%) <0.001 12356 (44.5%) 7821 (28.2%) <0.001