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Table 1 Background characteristics

From: Symptom burden in community-dwelling older people with multimorbidity: a cross-sectional study

  N = 378
Age (yrs.), mean (SD) 82 (4.8)
Women n (%) 182 (48)
Lived alone n (%) 193 (51)
Elementary school n (%) 305 (81)
Secondary school or higher education n (%) 68 (18)
Poor hearing with or without hearing device. n (%) 130 (34)
Poor vision with or without glasses. n (%) 104 (28)
Smokers n (%) 32 (8)
Alcohol on daily basis. n (%) 27 (7)
BMI (kg/m2) mean (SD) 26.1 (4.6)
Underweight (BMI < 18.5) n (%) 8 (2)
Normal (BMI 18.5 ≤ 24.9) n (%) 145 (38)
Overweight (BMI 25 ≤ 29.9) n (%) 140 (37)
Obese (BMI > 30) n (%) 60 (16)
MMSE mean (SD) 26.3 (3.2)
MMSE 20–24 n (%) 65 (17)
MMSE 10-19n (%) 12 (3)
MMSE ≤ 9 n (%) 0
GDS mean (SD) 3.7 (3.0)
GDS ≥5 n (%) 120 (32)
Diagnosis according to ICD 10 Chapter  
01. Certain infectious and parasitic diseases (A00-B99) n (%) 166 (44)
02. Neoplasma (C00-D48) n (%) 158 (42)
03. Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism (D50-D89) n (%) 116 (31)
04. Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00-E90) n (%) 187 (50)
05. Mental and behavioral disorders (F00-F99) n (%) 127 (33)
06. Diseases of the nervous system (G00-G99) n (%) 130 (34)
07. Diseases of the eye and adnexa (H00-H59) n (%) 219 (58)
08. Diseases of the ear and mastoid process (H60-H95) n (%) 142 (37)
09. Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-I99) n (%) 362 (96)
10. Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99) n (%) 210 (55)
11. Diseases of the digestive system (K00-K93) n (%) 206 (54)
12. Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (L00-L99) n (%) 164 (43)
13. Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (M00-M99) n (%) 295 (78)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI Body Mass Index, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, GDS-15 Geriatric Depression Scale, ICD International Classification of Diseases.