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Table 3 Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) by household composition at follow-up: bivariate analysis

From: Risk factors of functional disability among community-dwelling elderly people by household in Japan: a prospective cohort study

Parameters Three-generation (n = 798) pvalue Children-only (n = 101) pvalue Spouse-only (n = 131) pvalue Living alone (n = 54) pvalue
History of disease
Hypertension 1.11 (0.81–1.53) 0.510 0.47 (0.22–1.03) 0.059 1.06 (0.40–2.82) 0.912 0.92 (0.33–2.58) 0.881
Heart disease 1.51 (0.98–2.33) 0.065 0.79 (0.23–2.70) 0.700 0.12 (0.01–1.16) 0.067 5.67 (1.06–30.14) 0.042
Osteoporosis 0.92 (0.57–1.50) 0.748 0.49 (0.14–1.74) 0.269 0.44 (0.06–3.34) 0.425 0.51 (0.11–2.28) 0.377
DM 2.16 (1.45–3.22) <0.001 2.31 (0.67–7.94) 0.183 3.26 (0.92–11.59) 0.068 1.18 (0.15–9.51) 0.879
Stroke 2.22 (1.39–3.55) 0.001 1.16 (0.34–3.94) 0.817 4.57 (1.26–16.61) 0.021 - -
TMIG
IADL 0.77 (0.69–0.85) <0.001 0.99 (0.71–1.39) 0.955 0.52 (0.38–0.71) <0.001 0.66 (0.39–1.11) 0.119
IA 0.82 (0.72–0.94) 0.004 0.83 (0.65–1.06) 0.132 0.52 (0.36–0.75) <0.001 1.25 (0.78–1.99) 0.358
SR 0.74 (0.64–0.86) <0.001 0.81 (0.58–1.14) 0.227 0.56 (0.37–0.85) 0.007 0.95 (0.60–1.52) 0.836
MFS 0.90 (0.86–0.94) <0.001 0.94 (0.85–1.05) 0.278 0.78 (0.69–0.88) <0.001 0.97 (0.84–1.11) 0.615
Falls experienced during the past year
Presence 1.41 (1.02–1.95) 0.040 0.53 (0.18–1.52) 0.237 4.70 (1.71–12.91) 0.003 2.63 (0.87–7.94) 0.087
DVS < =8 1.05 (0.53–2.06) 0.894 0.98 (0.35–2.77) 0.967 5.30 (1.34–20.94) 0.017 - -
Frequency of going outdoors
< 1/week 2.46 (1.76–3.44) <0.001 1.99 (0.91–4.37) 0.086 3.95 (1.27–12.29) 0.018 1.26 (0.40–3.99) 0.700
Cognitive function
Mild or severe 1.60 (0.93–2.75) 0.093 1.64 (0.49–5.50) 0.423 2.23 (0.49–10.19) 0.300 - -
GDS > =5 1.71 (1.25–2.35) 0.001 1.02 (0.45–2.33) 0.960 4.59 (1.68–12.57) 0.003 5.19 (1.33–20.31) 0.018
  1. Cox regression analysis. All variables were adjusted for covariates of age and sex.
  2. Data are given as hazard ratios (95% confidence interval). TMIG, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology index of competence; IADL, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; IA, Intellectual activity; SR, Social role; MFS, Motor Fitness Scale; DVS, Dietary Variety Score; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale.