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Table 4 Predictors of UTI antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli 1 in voided urine specimens

From: Antimicrobial resistance in urinary pathogens among Swedish nursing home residents remains low: a cross-sectional study comparing antimicrobial resistance from 2003 to 2012

  Unadjusted odds ratios (95% CI; p-value) Adjusted odds ratios (95% CI; p-value)
Mecillinam   
  Antibiotics last month2 7.2 (2.4-21; p = 0.00040) 7.1 (2.4-21; p = 0.00049)
  Age 1.0 (0.94-1.1; p = 0.65) 1.0 (0.94-1.1; p = 0.62)
  Gender3 <10-6 (0-∞; p = 1.0) <10-6 (0-∞; p = 1.0)
Ampicillin   
  Antibiotics last month2 5.2 (2.4-11; p = 0.000030) 5.2 (2.4-11; p = 0.000036)
  Age 1.0 (0.98-1.1; p = 0.40) 1.0 (0.97-1.1; p = 0.42)
  Gender3 0.26 (0.033-2.0; p = 0.20) 0.32 (0.040-2.6; p = 0.28)
Cefadroxil   
  Antibiotics last month2 <10-6 (0-∞; p = 1.0) <10-6 (0-∞; p = 1.0)
  Age 1.1 (0.91-1.4; p = 0.28) 1.1 (0.91-1.4; p = 0.30)
  Gender3 <10-6 (0-∞; p = 1.0) <10-6 (0-∞; p = 1.0)
Trimethoprim   
  Antibiotics last month2 4.0 (1.7-9.4; p = 0.0018) 3.9 (1.6-9.2; p = 0.0023)
  Age 1.0 (0.96-1.1; p = 0.60) 1.0 (0.96-1.1; p = 0.65)
  Gender3 <10-6 (0-∞; p = 1.0) <10-6 (0-∞; p = 1.0)
Nitrofurantoin   
  Antibiotics last month2 1.0×108 (0-∞; p = 1.0) 1.1×108 (0-∞; p = 0.99)
  Age 1.2 (0.90-1.6; p = 0.22) 1.3 (0.88-1.8; p = 0.21)
  Gender3 <10-6 (0-∞; p = 1.0) 1.2×10-5 (0-∞; p = 1.0)
Nalidixic acid 4 2003   
  Antibiotics last month2 4.3 (1.4-13; p = 0.013) 4.6 (1.4-16; p = 0.014)
  Age 0.92 (0.87-0.98; p = 0.014) 0.92 (0.86-0.99; p = 0.018)
  Gender3 <10-6 (0-∞; p = 1.0) <10-6 (0-∞; p = 1.0)
Ciprofloxacin 5 2012   
  Antibiotics last month2 3.1 (0.30-32; p = 0.35) 3.6 (0.32-40; p = 0.31)
  Age 1.1 (0.91-1.3; p = 0.38) 1.1 (0.90-1.3; p = 0.36)
  Gender3 <10-6 (0-∞; p = 1.0) <10-6 (0-∞; p = 1.0)
  1. 1N = 255 (22 sparse growth and 233 significant growth), voided urine specimens in 2003 and 2012 from patients with known antibiotic treatment history.
  2. 2Any ongoing (n = 8) or previous antibiotic treatment during the last month (n = 25). Reference category: no antibiotics last month.
  3. 3Reference category: female.
  4. 4Only includes residents from 2003 since nalidixic acid only was tested in 2003 (n = 138).
  5. 5Only includes residents from 2012 since ciprofloxacin only was tested in 2012 (n = 117).
  6. Statistically significant findings are bold.