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Table 2 Assessment of risk of bias using the ‘Quality Assessment in Prognostic Studies’ (QUIPS) tool

From: Screening for frailty in primary care: a systematic review of the psychometric properties of the frailty index in community-dwelling older people

Study Study participation Study attrition Prognostic factor measurement Outcome measurement Statistical analysis
Armstrong et al. [21] Low Low Low Moderate Low
Cigolle et al. [20] Low N/A Moderate Low Moderate
Drubbel et al. [22] Low Moderate Moderate Low Low
Fang et al. [32] Low Moderate Moderate Low Low
García-González et al. [33] Low Moderate Low Low Low
Gu et al. [23] Low Low Low Low Low
Hogan et al. [37] Low Low Low Low Low
Kulminski et al. [24] Moderate Low Moderate Low Low
Kulminski et al. [25] Low High Low Low Low
Lucicesare et al. [26] Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
Lucicesare et al. [27] Low N/Aa Moderate Low Low
Mitnitski et al. [34] Low High Moderate Low Low
Mitnitski et al. [6] Low Moderate Low Low Low
Rockwood et al. [28] Moderate Moderate Low Low Low
Searle et al. [19] Low High Moderate Low Low
Shi et al. [35] Low Low Low Low Low
Song et al. [29] Low Low Low Low Low
Theou et al. [36] Low Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
Woo et al. [30] High Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
Woo et al. [31] Low High Moderate Low Low
  1. Low = low risk of bias, Moderate = moderate risk of bias, High = high risk of bias. Level of risk of bias was determined by judgement of the prompting items belonging to each assessed domain. aAttrition was not assessed because only the cross-sectional component in which construct validity was examined was of interest.