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Table 1 Univariable associations of baseline characteristics (1998/99) with regular dizziness at 7- and 10-year follow-up (2005/06 and 2008/09)

From: Predictors of dizziness in older persons: a 10-year prospective cohort study in the community

  7-year follow-up (N = 681) 10-year follow-up (N = 512)
Baseline characteristic D+ (N = 129) D- (N = 552) OR 95% CI Pvalue D+ (N = 73) D- (N = 439) OR 95% CI Pvalue
I. Sociodemographic           
Age, mean (SD) 74.0 (6.2) 72.9 (6.2) 1.0 1.0-1.1 0.052 72.4 (6.0) 72.0 (5.9) 1.0 1.0-1.1 0.609
Gender, female, n (%) 99 (76.7) 304 (55.1) 2.7 1.7-4.2 <0.001 48 (65.8) 253 (57.6) 1.4 0.8-2.4 0.193
Years of education, mean (SD) 8.3 (2.8) 9.4 (3.3) 0.9 0.8-1.0 0.001 9.0 (3.1) 9.4 (3.3) 1.0 0.9-1.0 0.315
Living alone, n(%) 67 (51.9) 182 (33.0) 2.2 1.5-3.2 <0.001 36 (49.3) 144 (32.8) 2.0 1.2-3.3 0.007
II. Medical history           
Regular dizziness, n (%) 47 (36.4) 50 (9.1) 5.8 3.6-9.1 <0.001 28 (38.4) 41 (9.3) 6.0 3.4-10.7 <0.001
No. major chronic diseases (0–7), mean (SD) 1.6 (1.1) 1.1 (1.0) 1.4 1.2-1.7 <0.001 1.4 (1.1) 1.1 (1.0) 1.3 1.0-1.5 0.015
Chronic pulmonary disease, n (%) 18 (14.0) 73 (13.2) 1.1 0.6-1.9 0.827 9 (12.3) 58 (13.2) 0.9 0.4-2.0 0.836
Cardiac disease, n (%) 38 (29.5) 134 (24.3) 1.3 0.9-2.0 0.223 19 (26.0) 103 (23.5) 1.1 0.7-2.0 0.634
Peripheral arterial disease, n (%) 14 (10.9) 33 (6.0) 1.9 1.0-3.7 0.053 4 (5.5) 27 (6.2) 0.9 0.3-2.6 0.824
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 10 (7.8) 36 (6.5) 1.2 0.6-2.5 0.617 5 (6.8) 22 (5.0) 1.4 0.5-3.8 0.517
Stroke, n (%) 5 (3.9) 26 (4.7) 0.8 0.3-2.2 0.683 3 (4.1) 15 (3.4) 1.2 0.3-4.3 0.766
Osteo/rheumatoid arthritis, n (%) 93 (72.1) 248 (44.9) 3.2 2.1-4.8 <0.001 45 (61.6) 216 (49.2) 1.7 1.0-2.8 0.051
Cancer, n (%) 25 (19.4) 58 (10.5) 2.0 1.2-3.4 0.006 14 (19.2) 52 (11.8) 1.8 0.9-3.4 0.087
III. Medication           
No. of drugs, mean (SD) 2.9 (2.1) 2.2 (2.0) 1.2 1.1-1.3 0.001 2.5 (2.0) 2.0 (1.9) 1.1 1.0-1.3 0.030
Psychopharmaceutical drugs           
Antidepressants, n (%) 8 (6.2) 20 (3.6) 1.8 0.8-4.1 0.189 2 (2.7) 16 (3.6) 0.7 0.2-3.3 0.698
Anxiolytics, n (%) 13 (10.1) 28 (5.1) 2.1 1.1-4.2 0.035 9 (12.3) 20 (4.6) 2.9 1.3-6.8 0.011
Hypnotics, n (%) 19 (14.7) 51 (9.2) 1.7 1.0-3.0 0.067 8 (11.0) 37 (8.4) 1.3 0.6-3.0 0.481
Cardiovascular drugs           
Antihypertensives, n (%) 53 (41.1) 191 (34.6) 1.3 0.9-2.0 0.168 32 (43.8) 147 (33.5) 1.6 0.9-2.6 0.086
Diuretics, n (%) 28 (21.7) 75 (13.6) 1.8 1.1-2.9 0.022 12 (16.4) 49 (11.2) 1.6 0.8-3.1 0.201
Nitrates, n (%) 19 (14.7) 32 (5.8) 2.8 1.5-5.1 0.001 9 (12.3) 27 (6.2) 2.1 1.0-4.8 0.061
IV. Psychological           
Impaired cognition, MMSE ≤24, n (%) 9 (7.0) 25 (4.5) 1.6 0.7-3.5 0.254 4 (5.5) 15 (3.4) 1.6 0.5-5.1 0.392
Anxiety, HADS-A ≥11, n (%)a,f 17 (13.3) 17 (3.1) 4.8 2.4-9.7 <0.001 7 (9.6) 13 (3.0) 3.5 1.4-9.0 0.011
Depression, CES-D ≥16, n (%)a,f 40 (31.3) 78 (14.2) 2.8 1.8-4.3 <0.001 20 (27.4) 68 (15.5) 2.1 1.2-3.7 0.014
Anxiety or depression a,f 43 (33.6) 83 (15.1) 2.9 1.8-4.4 <0.001 21 (28.8) 72 (16.4) 2.1 1.2-3.6 0.013
V. Sensory           
Impaired vision, n (%)b 42 (32.6) 94 (17.1) 2.3 1.5-3.6 <0.001 20 (27.4) 71 (16.2) 2.0 1.1-3.5 0.022
Impaired hearing, n (%) 49 (38.0) 169 (30.6) 1.4 0.9-2.1 0.107 26 (35.6) 127 (28.9) 1.4 0.8-2.3 0.249
VI. Balance/gait           
Impaired function of lower extremities (gait speed), n (%)c,g 52 (41.3) 130 (23.8) 2.3 1.5-3.4 <0.001 25 (34.2) 98 (22.6) 1.8 1.0-3.0 0.033
Impaired function of lower extremities (chair stands), n (%)d,h 65 (51.2) 146 (26.5) 2.9 2.0-4.3 <0.001 34 (47.2) 108 (24.7) 2.7 1.6-4.6 <0.001
Impaired standing balance (tandem stand), n (%)e,g 35 (27.8) 97 (17.8) 1.8 1.1-2.8 0.012 17 (23.3) 68 (15.7) 1.6 0.9-3.0 0.110
Falling past year, n (%)a,f 46 (35.7) 159 (28.9) 1.4 0.9-2.0 0.134 25 (34.2) 128 (29.2) 1.3 0.7-2.1 0.386
  1. CI: Confidence Interval; D+: presence of dizziness; D-: absence of dizziness; OR: Odds Ratio.
  2. Missing values at 7-year follow-up in a0.3%, b0.1%, c1.2%, d0.6%, and e1.6% of respondents.
  3. Missing values at 10-year follow-up in f0.2%, g1.0%, and h0.4% of respondents.