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Table 2 Characteristics of the active and inactive clusters

From: Who are the healthy active seniors? A cluster analysis

   Active cluster Inactive cluster   
Profile characteristics (N =169) (N = 69) Chi-square test
   N % N % χ2 p-value
Gender      0.098 .755
 Male 48 28.4% 21 30.4%   
 Female 121 71.6% 48 69.6%   
Marital status      1.276 .735
 Married 72 42.6% 26 37.7%   
 Widow 82 48.5% 34 49.3%   
 Separate 4 2.4% 3 4.3%   
 Single 11 6.5% 6 8.7%   
Main income source      24.932 .000
 From government 50 30.1% 45 65.2%   
 From family members 101 60.8% 21 30.4%   
 Own savings 15 9.0% 3 4.3%   
Monthly income      13.161 .041
 Less than 2,000 23 15.1% 20 30.8%   
 2,000 - 3,999 76 50.0% 36 55.4%   
 4,000 – 5,999 33 21.7% 6 9.2%   
 6,000 – 7,999 6 3.9% 1 1.5%   
 8,000 – 9,999 7 4.6% 1 1.5%   
 10,000 – 14,999 5 3.3% 1 1.5%   
 15,000 – 19,999 2 1.3% 0 .0%   
Enough money for daily expense      16.172 .003
 Extremely insufficient 4 2.4% 4 5.9%   
 Not enough 16 9.5% 15 22.1%   
 Just enough 78 46.4% 36 52.9%   
 Enough 61 36.3% 13 19.1%   
 In excess 9 5.4% 0 .0%   
Living status      8.092 .088
 Alone 60 35.5% 37 53.6%   
 Live with spouse 38 22.5% 13 18.8%   
 Live with spouse & children 23 13.6% 5 7.2%   
 Live with children 39 23.1% 13 18.8%   
 Live with other people 9 5.3% 1 1.4%   
Sport habit      2.322 .508
 Less than one day per week 15 9.0% 9 13.4%   
 1 - 3 days per week 33 19.9% 17 25.4%   
 4 - 5 days per week 18 10.8% 7 10.4%   
 6 - 7 days per week 100 60.2% 34 50.7%   
Sleepless night      18.914 .000
 Less than one day per week 119 71.7% 28 41.8%   
 1 - 3 days per week 30 18.1% 22 32.8%   
 4 - 5 days per week 5 3.0% 5 7.5%   
 6 - 7 days per week 12 7.2% 12 17.9%   
Leisure activities engaged in*       
 Mahjong 33 19.8% 6 9.1% 1.966 0.049
 Reading/writing 57 34.1% 11 16.7% 2.642 0.008
 Sing/dancing/musical instrument 44 26.3% 6 9.1% 2.891 0.004
 Play chess 11 6.6% 2 3.0% 1.066 0.287
 Watching TV/listen to radio 102 61.1% 52 78.8% -2.573 0.010
Hearing      1.424 .491
 Normal 121 71.6% 44 63.8%   
 Slightly difficult 37 21.9% 19 27.5%   
 Fairly difficult 11 6.5% 6 8.7%   
 Difficult 0 .0% 0 .0%   
Vision      14.757 .002
 Fine 141 83.4% 43 62.3%   
 Slight problem 22 13.0% 16 23.2%   
 Mild problem 5 3.0% 8 11.6%   
 Moderately difficult 1 .6% 2 2.9%   
 Difficult 0 .0% 0 .0%   
Climbing stairs      30.028 .000
 Help with other people 14 8.3% 26 37.7%   
 Independent 154 91.7% 43 62.3%   
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) t p-value
Demographic Variables       
 Age 76.53 (7.10) 78.57 (7.90) -1.944 .053
 Years of education 4.66 (4.60) 3.46 (3.21) 2.200 .029
 No. of siblings alive 2.55 (2.67) 1.64 (2.69) 2.351 .020
 No. of children alive 2.85 (1.82) 2.41 (1.86) 1.668 .097
 No. of chronic diseases suffered 2.06 (1.48) 2.51 (1.54) -2.071 .039
 No. of leisure activities engaged in 1.99 (1.06) 1.48 (.75) 4.070 .000
Control variables       
 LSNS - family network 9.98 (6.41) 6.67 (5.70) 3.735 .000
 LSNS - friend network 9.10 (5.53) 6.93 (5.03) 2.818 .005
 Life events (6 Items) .18 (.39) .41 (.65) -2.682 .009
 BI 98.63 (3.39) 93.20 (10.50) 4.207 .000
 IADL 22.98 (3.36) 20.22 (4.66) 4.475 .000
Outcome measures       
 LSI-A 14.64 (2.15) 8.46 (2.82) 16.377 .000
 GDS 1.89 (1.75) 6.68 (2.87) -12.917 .000
 RSES 8.52 (1.42) 5.62 (2.17) 10.244 .000
 GHS 8.07 (2.60) 13.62 (5.35) -8.214 .000
  1. Note :1. LSI-A = Life Satisfaction Scale, GDS = Geriatric Depression Scale, RSES = Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, GHQ = General Health Questionnaire, BI = Modified Barthel Index, IADL = Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, LSNS = Lubben Social Network Scale.
  2. 2. *Multiple-response items between clusters were tested with two-proportion z-test.