Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Characteristics of volunteer, older, home-dwelling drivers and of those considered as healthy drivers

From: The trail making test as a screening instrument for driving performance in older drivers; a translational research

Determinants All study participants (n = 404) Healthy* (n = 197) “Unhealthy”* (n = 207) P-value
  Median (p5–p95) / % (n) Median (p5–p95) / % (n) Median (p5–p95) / % (n) (Chi2or T-test)
Age (years) 75.4 years (70-84) 74.8 (70–83) 75.8 (71–85) P = 0.025
Gender (% male) 62.6% (n = 253) 52.8% (n = 104) 72.0% (n = 149) P < 0.001
Education (% <12 yrs) 26.2% (n = 106) 23.3% (n = 46) 29.0% (n = 60) P = 0.198
Vision     
Visual acuity (decimal) 1.0 dec (0.6–1.2) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 1.0 (0.6–1.2) P = 0.003
Visual field (°) 180° (150–200) 180 (160–200) 180 (150–200) P = 0.106
Contrast sensitivity (log[CS])† 1.72 log(CS) (1.6–1.76) 1.72 (1.6–1.76) 1.72 (1.6–1.76) P = 0.429
Functional mobility     
Timed up-and-go test – TUG (sec) 8.0 sec (6.0–13.0) 8.0 (6.0–12.0) 8.4 (6.0–14.8) P < 0.001
Cognitive state     
MoCA (points [0-30]) 27 points (21–30) 28 (26–30) 25 (20–29) P < 0.001
MoCAmod (points [0-29]) 26 points (20–29) 27 (24–29) 24 (19–28) P < 0.001
Driving     
Distance driven per week (km) 200 km (50–500) 200 (40–500) 200 (50–500) P = 0.832
History of accidents during the previous 2 years     
All types with material damage 26.0% (n = 105) 25.4% (n = 50) 26.6% (n = 55) P = 0.785
Responsible for damage to others 7.4% (n = 30) 6.6% (n = 13) 8.2% (n = 17) P = 0.536
Injured 1.2% (n = 5) 0% (n = 0) 2.4% (n = 5) P = 0.028
On-road driving performance     P = 0.605
Excellent 47.0% (n = 190) 46.2% (n = 91) 47.8% (n = 99)  
Good 27.0% (n = 109) 27.9% (n = 55) 26.1% (n = 54)  
Moderate 20.5% (n = 83) 21.8% (n = 43) 19.3% (n = 40)  
Poor 5.4% (n = 22) 4.1% (n = 8) 6.8% (n = 14)  
  1. *The healthy population was defined as drivers with normal optical vision, no cognitive impairment (MoCA ≥ 26), normal functional mobility (TUG < 13.5 sec), no known risk of sudden blackout, and without class III medication affecting driving performance. † MARS contrast sensitivity was not collected from the start of the study and was therefore available for only 158 participants, of whom 76 were healthy. ‡ P-Values are for comparing healthy participants to “unhealthy participants”. CS = contrast sensitivity, MoCA = Montreal cognitive assessment, MoCAmod = Modified MoCA (without TMT or education level).