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Table 2 The association of frailty and psychosocial factors with outcomes

From: Psychosocial factors modify the association of frailty with adverse outcomes: a prospective study of hospitalised older people

  12-Month mortality ( n=40 of 172) Discharged to higher level care ( n=70 of 163) Long GEMU LOS (> 12 days) (n=97 of 172) 1-month emergency rehospitalisation (n=38 of 163)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
  Frailty 3.16 (1.36-7.33) n.a. 2.40 (1.21-4.78) n.a. 2.04 (1.07-3.88) n.a. 2.53 (1.10-5.82) n.a.
Demographic characteristic    
  Lives alone 0.79 (0.39-1.60) 0.83 (0.42-1.68) 1.01 (0.52-1.97) 1.12 (0.56-2.22) 1.01 (0.53-1.91) 1.08 (0.56-2.06) 1.10 (0.51-2.39) 1.02 (0.46-2.23)
  unmarried 1.14 (0.51 -2.52) 0.91 (0.38-2.17) 0.92 (0.46-1.86) 0.90 (0.44-1.85) 1.51 (0.77-2.97) 1.52 (0.77-3.03) 1.89 (0.85-4.20) 1.90 (0.84-4.29)
Psychosocial characteristic        
  Anxiety (GAI-SF>3) 1.79 (0.85-3.78) 1.56 (0.74-3.26) 1.25 (0.64-2.46) 1.59 (0.78-3.26) 0.72 (0.38-1.36) 0.87 (0.44-1.69) 0.70 (0.32-1.53) 0.83 (0.37-1.87)
  Depression (GDS-SF>6) 1.50 (0.65-3.45) 1.49 (0.66-3.37) 1.07 (0.53-2.14) 0.88 (0.43-1.81) 1.39 (0.72-2.70) 1.21 (0.61-2.40) 1.26 (0.57-2.80) 1.02 (0.44-2.33)
  Wellbeing (poor) 1.91 (0.88-4.15) 1.84 (0.86-3.92) 2.81 (1.30-6.06) 2.26 (1.01-5.04) 1.28 (0.52-3.15) 0.96 (0.37-2.45) 2.12 (1.00-4.50) 1.70 (0.77-3.73)
  Sense of control (poor) 2.97 (1.29-6.83) 2.30 (0.94-5.64) 3.22 (1.54-6.72) 2.66 (1.25-6.00) 2.17 (1.07-4.41) 1.80 (0.86-3.76) 2.02 (0.88-4.64) 1.68 (0.71-3.94)
  Social activities (poor) 0.92 (0.20-4.29) 0.77 (0.17-3.51) 3.36 (1.01-11.22) 2.94 (0.86-10.05) 1.04 (0.36-3.03) 0.88 (0.29-2.63) 0.40 (0.12-1.33) 0.31 (0.85-1.09)
  Social relationships (poor) 1.99 (0.79–5.04) 1.68 (0.66-4.31) 1.87 (0.86-4.09) 2.01 (0.91-4.46) 0.64 (0.30-1.37) 0.60 (0.28-1.30) 0.68 (0.26-1.78) 0.63 (0.24-1.67)
  1. Model 1 controlled for age, gender and Charlson’s Comorbidity Index; Model 2 controlled for age, gender Charlson’s Comorbidity Index and Frailty Status measured using Fried’s criteria.
  2. For each psychosocial factor with a ‘poor’ ranking, poor was considered as the lowest quartile.
  3. Abbreviations: HR Hazard Ratio, CI confidence interval, n.a. not applicable, GAI-SF Geriatric Anxiety Inventory – Short Form, GDS-SF Geriatric Depression Scale – Short Form, LOS Length of Stay, GEMU Geriatric Evaluation and Management Unit. Significant factors are highlighted in BOLD.