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Table 4 Multi-component training (combined aerobic, strength, coordination; low challenge balance)

From: The effect of interactive cognitive-motor training in reducing fall risk in older people: a systematic review

Study, sample size Intervention vs control (content, dose) Sample characteristics Main findings
  Within-group Between-group
Cognitive-motor only
Lee 2013 [38] N = 55 IG: RT, aerobics, strength, coordination, low level balance (3D, static and dynamic) – higher intensity 10 wk, 2/wk, 50 min, education: twice 50 min Diabetes; age 65+; IG 73.78 (4.77), CG 74.29 (5.20); independent walking; no intellectual disabilities; 24/55 fall past year + BBS pre 51.67(2.48) post 53.41 (.89), p < .001  
STS pre 17.51(5.46) post 13.78 (2.86), p < .001
CG: N/A (reported as RCT but only within group analysis) FR pre 28.22 (6.86) post 32.50 (6.31), p < .001
TUG pre 11.48 (2.31) post 9.78 (1.58), p < .001
OLS pre 15.85 (8.26) 21.75 post (8.11), p < .001
Gait speed pre 93.16 (18.97) post 102.87 (16.56), p < .001
Cadence pre 101.95 (11.81) post 109.92 (10.94), p < .001
mFES pre 6.75 (1.7)9 post 8.11 (1.11), p = .002
Rosenberg 2010 [30] N = 19 IG: Wii sports unstructured– higher intensity 12 wk, 3/wk, 35 min Community-dwelling;age 78.7 (8.7); 63–94; subsyndromal depression; no major depression, primary anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or substance use disorder (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview); no cognitive impairment (MMSE < 24); TUG < 14 s; 18% “limited a lot” in performing moderate level physical activity, 35% “limited a little,”, 47% no limitation (SF-36) +Depression (Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms) pre 7.8 (3.7) 6 wk 4.8 (2.3), p = .002 post 5.1 (3.0) p = .004  
CG: N/A
Cognition (Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neurocognitive Status) pre 90.7 (18.0) post 95.3 (16.9), p = .032
No anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory)
Keogh 2013 [60] N = 26 IG: Wii sports unstructured– higher intensity 8 wk, individual Residential aged care; age 83 (8); IG 81 (7), CG 85 (7); able to walk at least 10 meters unaided or with a walking aid; sufficient cognitive ability to understand instructions (standard tools such as the MMSE); sedentary   No FSST (n = 15/26) p = .199
CG: passive
Cognitive-motor plus other components
Hsu 2011 [29] N = 34 IG: Wii sports bowling + strength and balance 4 wk, 2/wk, 20 min + 4 wk, 2-4/wk, ? Long-term care; age 80, 52–97; self-reported upper extremity dysfunction; no major cognitive impairment (determined by staff); 91% walking aid (including wheelchair) No STS No STS
CG: strength and balance 4 wk, 2-4/wk, ? IADL (Nursing Home Physical Performance Test)
  1. IG intervention group, CG control group, wk week, RT reaction time, MMSE Minimental State Examination, TUG Timed up and go test, BBS Berg Balance Scale, STS Sit-to-stand test, FR Functional Reach test, OLS One leg stance, MFES Modified Falls Efficacy Scale, FSST Four Square Step test, ADL Activities of daily living.