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Table 3 The association between reported loneliness (Waves 2 to 5) and odds of pet ownership (Wave 5) (OR and 95% CI)

From: Does owning a pet protect older people against loneliness?

  Pet ownership
  Cross-sectional Prospective analysis
Loneliness Wave 5 Wave 2 to wave5 (2004–2010) Wave 3 to wave 5 (2006–2010) Wave 4 to wave 5 (2008–2010)
N 4,638 4,743 4,640 4,571
Adjusted 1  
All  
  No 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  Yes 1.24 (1.05-1.46) 1.20 (1.01-1.42) 1.21 (1.02-1.43) 1.45 (1.23-1.72)
Men  
  No 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  Yes 1.03 (0.77-1.36) 1.03 (0.76-1.38) 0.89 (0.67-1.20) 1.02 (0.77-1.36)
Women  
  No 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  Yes 1.40 (1.14-1.72) 1.30 (1.05-1.61) 1.42 (1.16-1.74) 1.76 (1.43-2.17)
P sex interaction 0.006 0.02 0.001 <0.001
Adjusted 2  
All  
  No 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  Yes 1.39 (1.01-1.91) 1.13 (0.8-1.59) 1.40 (1.01-1.96) 1.43 (1.02-2.01)
Men  
  No 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  Yes 0.79 (0.47-1.34) 0.96 (0.58-1.59) 0.97 (0.57-1.65) 1.10 (0.65-1.87)
Women  
  No 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  Yes 1.84 (1.26-2.68) 1.28 (0.86-1.89) 1.56 (1.07-2.27) 1.81 (1.22-2.67)
P sex interaction 0.006 0.26 0.07 0.07
  1. Adjusted 1 = for gender(in pooled analysis), age, marital status, working status, social class, health status, social participation, close personal relationships, household income.
  2. Adjusted 2 = additionally adjusted for pet ownership in Wave 0, N = 2,141.