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Table 1 Baseline demographic data including a comparison between those scoring minimum (score 1 and 2/5) and maximum (score 3, 4 and 5/5) risk on the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC)

From: Screening for markers of frailty and perceived risk of adverse outcomes using the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC)

Descriptor Total (Percentage) RISC institutionalization P-value RISC hospitalization P-value RISC death P-value
   Minimum risk Maximum risk Minimum risk Maximum risk   Maximum risk Maximum risk  
   N = 686 N = 96   N = 499 N = 283   N = 621 N = 161  
Age (Mean ± SD) 79.8 ± 7.4 79.7 ± 7.4 81.8 ± 6.7 < 0.01 80 ± 7.3 79.9 ± 7.4 0.99 79 ± 7 83.2 ± 7.7 < 0.001
Gender F 516 (64%) 65% 67% 0.70 69% 57% 0.001 67% 59% 0.08
M 287 (36%) 35% 33% 31% 43% 33% 41%
Educational Level (where available)     0.02    0.06    < 0.01
- Primary 154 (37%) 35% 48% 33% 42% 33% 50%
- Secondary 178 (43%) 46% 27% 48% 36% 47% 30%
- Third 83 (20%) 19% 25% 19% 22% 20% 20%
Living alone Y 381 (47%) 48% 41% 0.18 52% 40% < 0.01 49% 43% 0.20
N 422 (53%) 52% 59% 48% 60% 51% 57%
Accommodation type           0.22
- Own home 724 (90%) 93% 85% < 0.01 93% 89% 0.02 93% 89%
- Sheltered accommodation 21 (3%) 1% 0% 0% 2% 1% 1%
- Another’s home 58 (7%) 6% 15% 6% 9% 6% 10%
Home Help Y 419 (52%) 50% 81% < 0.001 48% 63% < 0.001 53% 57% 0.29
(Any type) N 384 (48%) 50% 19% 52% 37% 47% 43%
Home help hours           < .001
0 384 (48%) 58% 21% < 0.001 60% 42% < 0.001 55% 49%
≤5 335 (41%) 34% 44% 34% 39% 37% 31%
6-10 40 (5%) 4% 14% 4% 8% 5% 7%
11-20 24 (3%) 2% 10% 2% 5% 3% 6%
>20 20 (3%) 2% 11% 1% 6% 1% 7%
Abbreviated Mental Test Score (Mean ± SD) 9.25 ± 1.86 9.51 ± 1.46 7.38 ± 3.07 < 0.001 9.43 ± 1.60 8.94 ± 2.23 < 0.001 9.41 ± 1.58 8.64 ± 2.61 < 0.001
Cognitive Impairment Y 134 (16.7%) 21% 75% < 0.001 22% 41% < 0.001 24% 47% < 0.001
N 669 (83.3%) 79% 25%   78% 59%   76% 53%
Barthel Index Score (Median ± IQR) 18 ± 6, range 0-20 18 ± 4, 0-20 12 ± 6, 0-20 < 0.001 19 ± 4, 0-20 16 ± 7, 0-20 < 0.001 18 ± 4, 0-20 15 ± 9, 0-20 < 0.001
PHNs own opinion of frailty Y 335 (42%) 37% 76% < 0.001 71% 63% < 0.001 36% 65% < 0.001
N 468 (58%) 63% 24% 29% 37% 64% 35%
Clinical Frailty Scale Score (Median ± IQR) 5 ± 2, range 0-9 4 ± 3, 0-9 6 ± 1, 2-8 < 0.001 4 ± 2, 0-8 6 ± 2, 2-9 < 0.001 4 ± 3, 0-8 6 ± 2, 2-9 < 0.001
Clinical Frailty Score ≥5 422 (54%) 49% 91% < 0.001 44% 73% < 0.001 49% 75% < 0.001
Charlson Comorbidity Index (Median ± IQR) 1 ± 2, range 0-10 1 ± 2, 0-9 2 ± 2, 0-10 < 0.001 1 ± 1, 0-7 2 ± 2, 0-10 < 0.001 1 ± 2, 0-8 2 ± 2, 0-10 < 0.001
Total number medications (Median ± IQR) 5 ± 5, range 0-18 5 ± 4.3, 0-18 7 ± 5, 1-16 0.001 4 ± 5, 0-14 7 ± 5, 0-18 < 0.001 5 ± 4, 0-16 6 ± 5, 0-18 < 0.001
Admissions in last year (Median ± IQR) 1 ± 1, range 0-10 1 ± 1, 0-10 1 ± 0, 1-5 0.17 1 ± 1, 0-6 1 ± 1, 1-10 > 0.05 1 ± 1, 0-10 1 ± 1, 1-6 0.19