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Table 1 Patient characteristics and laboratory and clinical data of patients assessed with the CHS and SOF frailty index*

From: Prevalence of frailty and its ability to predict in hospital delirium, falls, and 6-month mortality in hospitalized older patients

  CHS frailty index (N = 220 patients) SOF index (N = 204 patients)
  Nonfrail and prefrail (n = 132) Frail (n = 88) P Nonfrail (n = 32) Prefrail (n = 106) Frail (n = 66) p
Age (y), mean ± SD 83.7 ± 4.8 83.3 ± 5.4 0.58 83.1 ± 5.2 83.8 ± 5.1 83.5 ± 5.1 0.77
Female, n (%) 81 (62) 45 (51) 0.1 15 (47) 64 (60) 38 (58) 0.39
Number of comorbidities, mean ± SD 2.33 ± 1.5 3.4 ± 2 <0.001 2 ± 1.3a 2.4 ± 1.4 3.1 ± 1.8 0.005
Number of medications taken at home, mean ± SD 7.5 ± 3.5 8.9 ± 3.5 0.005 7 ± 3.9b 7.7 ± 3.1 8.9 ± 3.6 0.012
Hemoglobin, g/dl, mean ± SD 12.3 (2.1) 11.7 (2.1) 0.07 12.7 ± 2.1 12.1 ± 2.0 11.8 ± 2.0 0.09
  Hemoglobin < 10, n (%) 19 (15) 18 (20) 0.32 4 (13) 16 (15) 13 (20) 0.36
  Hemoglobin ≥10 and <12 (F) or < 13 (M), n(%) 39 (30) 30 (34)   6 (19) 35 (33) 21 (32)  
  Hemoglobin ≥12 (F) or ≥ 13 (M), n (%) 73 (55) 41 (46)   22 (68) 55 (53) 32 (48)  
C-reactive protein (mg/L), mean ± SD 43.6 ± 74 45 ± 63 0.12 51 ± 84 45.5 ± 77 42 ± 61 0.68
eGFR (ml/min), mean ± SD 54.6 ± 22 49.9 ± 24.6 0.16 59.2 ± 18 54.4 ± 23 49.2 ± 24 0.12
Education        
  Low (<15 y), n (%) 52 (39.4) 36 (40.1) 0.78 14 (43.8) 43 (40.5) 26 (39.4) 0.9
  Moderate (12–18 y), n (%) 66 (50) 41 (46.5)   15 (46.9) 52 (49) 32 (48.5)  
  High (≥18 y), n (%) 14 (10.6) 11 (12.5)   3 (9.3) 11 (10.4) 8 (12.1)  
MMSE short form, mean ± SD (range 0–12) 8.5 ± 3.0 8.1 ± 3.1 0.2 9.2 ± 2.9 8.2 ± 3.1 8.8 ± 2.5 0.12
ADL, mean ± SD 2.6 ± 3.0 4.5 ± 3.0 <0.001 1.1 ± 1.7c 3.3 ± 3.1 4.1 ± 3.1 <0.001
GDS, mean ± SD 2.7 ± 2.2 4.4 ± 2.6 <0.001 2.5 ± 2.1 3.0 ± 2.4 4.2 ± 2.6d 0.001
Patients with delirium during hospitalization, n (%) 14 (10.6) 10 (11.4) 0.86 2 (6.3) 12 (11.3) 6 (9.1) 0.68
Patients with ≥ 1 fall during hospitalization, n (%) 10 (7.6) 8 (9.1) 0.7 0 (0) 12 (11.3) 5 (7.6) 0.12
Length of stay, days, mean ± SD 15 ± 11.6 17.4 ± 13.1 0.17 12.2 ± 8.7 15.5 ± 11.6 17.9 ± 13.2 0.08
Mortality during hospitalization, n (%) 1 (0.8) 9 (10.2) 0.001 0 (0) 3 (2.8) 7 (10.6) 0.02
Morality 6 months after hospitalizatione, n (%) 7/127 (5.5) 23/77 (30) <0.001 0/31 (0) 12/99 (12) 13/59 (22) 0.01
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, M male, F female, CHS Cardiovascular Health Study, SOF Study of Osteoporotic Fracture, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ADL activities of daily living, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale.
  2. *A total of 220 patients were included. Of the 220 patients who had complete CHS data, 204 had complete SOF data.
  3. aNonfrail patients significantly different from frail patients (p = 0.006 after Bonferroni correction).
  4. bNonfrail patients significantly different from frail patients (p = 0.03 after Bonferroni correction).
  5. cNonfrail patients significantly different from prefrail (p = 0.001 after Bonferroni correction) and frail patients (p < 0.001 after Bonferroni correction).
  6. dFrail patients significantly different from prefrail (p = 0.01 after Bonferroni correction) and nonfrail(p = 0.005 after Bonferroni correction) patients.
  7. eData for 6-month mortality were available for 204 patients assessed with the CHS index and 189 patients assessed with the SOF index.