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Table 4 Main outcomes in the crossover intervention group

From: Community-based intervention to improve dietary habits and promote physical activity among older adults: a cluster randomized trial

Outcomes   Almost every day 3-4 days/week 0-2 days/week P
Food frequency, n (%)      
Meat Pre 6 (20.7) 15 (51.7) 8 (27.6) 0.005a
Post 13 (44.8) 12 (41.4) 4 (13.8)
Fish/Shellfish Pre 12 (41.4) 11 (37.9) 6 (20.7) 0.197a
Post 15 (51.7) 10 (34.5) 4 (13.8)
Eggs Pre 6 (20.7) 14 (48.3) 9 (31.0) 0.002a
Post 16 (55.2) 10 (34.5) 3 (10.3)
Milk Pre 15 (51.7) 7 (24.1) 7 (24.1) 0.021a
Post 22 (75.9) 2 (6.9) 5 (17.2)
Soybean products Pre 13 (44.8) 11 (37.9) 5 (17.2) 0.016a
Post 21 (72.4) 6 (20.7) 2 (6.9)
Green & Yellow vegetables Pre 17 (58.6) 6 (20.7) 6 (20.7) 0.008a
Post 24 (82.8) 4 (13.8) 1 (3.4)
Potatoes Pre 5 (17.2) 9 (31.0) 15 (51.7) 0.003a
Post 14 (48.3) 8 (27.6) 7 (24.1)
Fruits Pre 11 (37.9) 9 (31.0) 9 (31.0) 0.013a
Post 18 (62.1) 5 (17.2) 6 (20.7)
Seaweeds Pre 10 (34.5) 10 (34.5) 9 (31.0) 0.011a
Post 16 (55.2) 10 (34.5) 3 (10.3)
Fats & Oil Pre 10 (34.5) 13 (44.8) 6 (20.7) 0.115a
  Post 15 (51.7) 10 (34.5) 4 (13.8)  
Food Frequency Score (FFS), mean ± SD Pre   20.9 ± 4.5   0.000b
Post   24.7 ± 5.1  
Dietary variety Score (DVS), mean ± SD Pre   3.6 ± 2.3   0.000b
  Post   6.0 ± 3.2   
Positive change in DVS 1–3 Score group, n (%)    7 (53.8)   
   5-7 days 2-4 days 0-1 day P
Walking, n (%) Pre 12 (41.4) 10 (34.5) 7 (24.1) 0.090a
Post 15 (51.7) 11 (37.9) 3 (10.3)
Exercise, n (%) Pre 13 (44.8) 10 (34.5) 6 (20.7) 0.026a
  Post 21(72.4) 4 (13.8) 4 (13.8)  
  1. Wilcoxon signed-rank testa for within-groups difference of categorical variables.
  2. Paired t-testb for within-groups difference of continuous variables.