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Table 2 Main outcomes in the intervention group and the control group

From: Community-based intervention to improve dietary habits and promote physical activity among older adults: a cluster randomized trial

Outcomes   Intervention Control Between-groups
Food frequency, n (%)   Almost every day 3-4 days/week 0-2 days/week P Almost every day 3-4 days/week 0-2 days/week P P
Meat Pre 12 (21.1) 21 (36.8) 24 (42.1) 0.002a 9 (25.7) 13 (37.1) 13 (37.1) 1.000a  
Post 23 (40.4) 21 (36.8) 13 (22.8) 7 (20.0) 17 (48.6) 11 (31.4)
Fish/Shellfish Pre 23 (40.4) 23 (40.4) 11 (19.3) 0.020a 17 (48.6) 11 (31.4) 7 (20.0) 1.000a  
Post 28 (49.1) 26 (45.6) 3 (5.3) 16 (45.7) 13 (37.1) 6 (17.1)
Eggs Pre 19 (33.3) 13 (22.8) 25 (43.9) 0.010a 10 (28.6) 12 (34.3) 13 (37.1) 0.527a  
Post 24 (42.1) 20 (35.1) 13 (22.8) 8 (22.9) 14 (40.0) 13 (37.1)
Milk Pre 29 (50.9) 10 (17.5) 18 (31.6) 0.075a 20 (57.1) 6 (17.1) 9 (25.7) 1.000a  
Post 35 (61.4) 8 (14.0) 14 (24.6) 19 (54.3) 8 (22.9) 8 (22.9)
Soybean products Pre 30 (52.6) 17 (29.8) 10 (17.5) 0.278a 17 (48.6) 11 (31.4) 7 (20.0) 0.822a  
Post 34 (59.6) 15 (26.3) 8 (14.0) 16 (45.7) 12 (34.3) 7 (20.0)
Green& Yellow vegetables Pre 40 (70.2) 14 (24.6) 3(5.3) 0.491a 21 (60.0) 9 (25.7) 5 (14.3) 0.782a  
Post 42(73.7) 13 (22.8) 2(3.5) 21 (60.0) 8 (22.9) 6(17.1)
Potatoes Pre 9 (15.8) 20 (35.1) 28 (49.1) 0.019a 8 (22.9) 13 (37.1) 14 (40.0) 0.225a  
Post 15 (26.3) 25 (43.9) 17 (29.8) 6 (17.1) 12 (34.3) 17 (48.6)
Fruits Pre 42 (73.7) 9(15.8) 6(10.5) 0.029a 16 (45.7) 9 (25.7) 10 (28.6) 0.593a  
Post 48 (84.2) 6:(10.5) 3 (5.3) 14 (40.0) 11 (31.4) 10 (28.6)
Seaweeds Pre 15 (26.3) 23 (40.4) 19 (33.3) 0.001a 7 (20.0) 17 (48.6) 11 (31.4) 0.674a  
Post 28 (49.1) 21 (36.8) 8 (14.0) 10 (28.6) 13 (37.1) 12 (34.3)
Fats & Oil Pre 23 (40.4) 23 (40.4) 11 (19.3) 0.057a 13 (37.1) 12 (34.3) 10 (28.6) 0.858a  
  Post 33 (57.9) 16 (28.1) 8 (14.0)   10 (28.6) 17 (48.6) 8 (22.9)   
Food Frequency Score(FFS) mean ± SD Pre   21.5 ± 3.7   0.000b   21.1 ± 5.4   0.631b 0.002c
Post 23.9 ± 3.9 20.8 ± 4.3
Dietary variety Score(DVS) mean ± SD Pre   4.2 ± 2.3   0.001b   3.9 ± 2.9   0.328b 0.004c
  Post   5.4 ± 2.6     3.6 ± 2.2    
Positive change in DVS 1–3 Score group, n (%)    11 (55.0)     3 (18.8)    0.041d
   5-7 days 2-4 days 0-1 day P 5-7 day 2-4 days 0-1 day P P
Walking, n (%) Pre 35 (61.4) 7 (12.3) 15 (26.3) 0.664a 16 (45.7) 11 (31.4) 8 (22.9) 0.348a n.s.e
Post 31 (54.4) 17 (29.8) 9 (15.8) 14 (40.0) 10 (28.6) 11 (31.4)
Exercise, n (%) Pre 23 (40.4) 19 (33.3) 15 (26.3) 0.678a 17 (48.6) 6 (17.1) 12 (34.3) 1.000a n.s.e
  Post 20 (35.1) 28 (49.1) 9 (15.8)   14 (40.0) 12 (34.3) 9 (25.7)   
  1. Wilcoxon signed-rank testa for within-groups difference of categorical variables.
  2. Student’s t-testb for between-group difference of continuous variables.
  3. Two-way Repeated-Measures ANOVAc for the time-by-group interaction of continuous variables.
  4. Fisher's exact test d for between-group difference proportional variables.
  5. Z-teste for between-group differences of improvement rate about categorical variables. P > 0.05; Z-score > 1.96.