Skip to main content

Table 1 Study cohort demographics

From: Early recognition of risk factors for adverse outcomes during hospitalization among Medicare patients: a prospective cohort study

Description n (%)
Female 123 (57.9)
Age (years)  
<65 40 (18.7)
65-79 85 (39.7)
> 80 89 (41.6)
Race  
White 147 (68.7)
Black 47 (22.0)
Other 20 (9.4)
Secondary insurance type  
Commercial PPOa 61 (28.5)
Commercial Indemnity 41 (19.2)
Medicaid Indemnity 78 (36.4)
Other/Unknown 34 (15.9)
Discharge destination  
Home/self-care 112 (52.3)
Home health care 46 (21.5)
Skilled Nursing Facility 36 (16.8)
Hospice 6 (2.80
Expired 3 (1.4)
Other 11 (5.1)
Comorbidities (n and% of total for each)  
Myocardial infarction 22 (10.3)
Heart failure 36 (16.8)
Ischemic heart disease 21 (9.8)
COPDb 28 (13.1)
Peripheral vascular disease 28 (13.1)
Diabetes 66 (30.8)
Cancer 44 (20.6)
Dementia 28 (13.1)
Hepatic disease 14 (6.6)
Mild renal diseasec 24 (11.2)
Moderate/severe renal diseasec 72 (33.6)
Frailty characteristics (n and% of total for each)  
Admitted from a skilled nursing facility 22 (10.3)
Ages 80 years and older 89 (41.6)
Anemia 103 (48.1)
Charlson Comorbidity Index Score > =4 74 (34.6)
Cognitive impairment 76 (35.5)
Deconditioning 28 (13.1)
Decubitus ulcer 17 (7.9)
Dehydration 84 (39.3)
Depression screen positive* 75 (42.1)
Feeding tube present at admission 8 (3.7)
Four or more active comorbid conditions 158 (73.8)
Functional impairment 77 (36.0)
Hyponatremia 20 (9.3)
Malnutrition 27 (12.6)
Potentially inappropriate medications 72 (33.6)
Use of a major tranquilizer 49 (22.9)
Polypharmacy** 106 (51.7)
Early readmission:  
≥1 within the past 30 days 59 (27.6)
≥2 within the past 6 months 49 (22.9)
Recent unintentional weight loss 41 (19.2)
  1. aPPO = Preferred Provider Organization; bCOPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; cRenal disease severity determined by estimated creatinine clearance: mild = 60–89 ml/min;moderate/severe = <60 ml/min or dialysis dependent. Data available from only (*)n = 178 or (**)n = 205.