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Table 2 Reported odd’s ratio’s (OR) of included studies for survival after CPR

From: Pre-arrest predictors of survival after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the elderly a systematic review

  Prognostic factor Crude ORs (95% CI) OR in multivariate analysis (95% CI) Factors included in multivariate analysis
Applebaum 1990 [19] Nursing home residency 0.14 (0.04-0.61) NR Not applicable
Ahn 2010 [22] Age 15–64 y 1.0 1.0 Gender, age, location, witness, initial rhythm, elapsed time interval before start BLS1 and ALS2, level of EMS3 provider (basic or intermediate).
Age ≥ 65 y 0.54 (0.44-0.65) 0.50 (0.41-0.62)
Gender (male) 1.57 (1.29-1.92) 1.14 (0.93-1.42)
Deasy 2011 [30] (Non-shockable rhythms) Age 65–69 y 1.0 1.0 Witnessed arrest, year in which arrest took place, sex, provision of bystander CPR, EMS response time, location of arrest.
Age 70–74 y 0.87 (0.69-1.09) 0.93 (0.73-1.19)
Age 75–59 y 0.84 (0.68-1.05) 0.88 (0.69-1.11)
Age 80–84 y 0.78 (0.62-0.97) 0.86 (0.67-1.09)
Age 85–89 y 0.61 (0.48-0.79) 0.65 (0.49-0.85)
Age 90–94 y 0.42 (0.30-0.60) 0.45 (0.31-0.65)
Age 95–99 y 0.20 (0.08-0.50) 0.21 (0.08-0.52)
Deasy 2011 [30] (Shockable rhythms) Age 65–69 y 1.0 1.0 Witnessed arrest, year in which arrest took place, sex, provision of bystander CPR, EMS response time, location of arrest.
Age 70–74 y 1.17 (0.92-1.49) 1.25 (0.97-1.61)
Age 75–59 y 1.24 (0.98-1.58) 1.29 (1.00-1.65)
Age 80–84 y 0.92 (0.71-1.19) 0.87 (0.66-1.15)
Age 85–89 y 0.85 (0.62-1.18) 0.82 (0.59-1.15)
Age 90–94 y 0.75 (0.45-1.25) 0.72 (0.42-1.24)
Age 95–99 y 0.12 (0.01-0.93) 0.11 (0.01-0.87)
Fabbri 2006 [27]4 Age >74 y vs. <74 0.39 (0.21-0.71) 0.41 (0.87-0.93) Initial rhythm, sex, age, comorbidity (history of diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction), seasonality, day-week, day-times, urban setting, home location, response times.
Gender (male) 2.21 (1.11-4.41) 3.5 (1.18-10.36)
Heart failure41 0.04 (0.03-0.31) 0.37 (0.14-0.99)
Cardiovascular disorder 0.28 (0.11-0.72) 0.40 (0.16-1.00)
0.38 (0.17-0.86) 0.34 (0.14-0.83)
Hypertension 0.36 (0.16-0.82) 0.70 (0.58-0.85)
Diabetes mellitus   
Herlitz 2005 [16] Age > 73 y vs. < 73 y 0.53 (0.46-0.62) 0.63 (0.50-0.71) Witnessed arrest, initial rhythm, provision of bystander CPR, ALS response interval, age, sex.
1.14 (0.97-1.33) NR
Gender (male)   
Iwami 2006 [38] Nursing home 0.96 (0.39-2.4) NR  
Kim 2000 [32] Age (per decade) NR 0.92 (0.85-0.99) Witnessed arrest, initial rhythm, sex, age, provision of bystander CPR, location of arrest.
Gender (male) NR 1.03 (1.32-0.77)
Mosier 2010 [33] Age (per decade) NR 0.79 (0.67-0.93) Witnessed arrest, VF5, agonal respirations, EMS response time, age.
Swor 2000 [34] Age 50–59 y 1.0 1.0 Witnessed arrest, VF, provision of bystander CPR, ALS response interval <9 min.
Age 60–69 y 0.81 (0.52-1.26) 0.86 (0.52-1.42)
Age > 70-79 y 0.70 (0.44-1.10) 0.83 (0.50-1.37)
Age > 80 y 0.31 (0.17-0.57) 0.40 (0.20-0.82)
  1. 1Basic life support.
  2. 2Advanced life support.
  3. 3Emergency Medical Service.
  4. 4Fabbri: favourable outcome at discharge (= survival with an overall Performance Category 1–2).
  5. 5Ventricular fibrillation.