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Table 1 Study population: characteristics of ESRD patients by dialysis discontinuation status prior to death (1995–2009)

From: Regional variation in care at the end of life: discontinuation of dialysis

Variable All patients Patients with discontinuation of dialysis Patients without discontinuation of dialysis
No. of patients 715,605 176,021 539,584
Age at dialysis onset, mean (SD) 66.7 (11.92) 70.1 (11.20) 65.6 (11.94)
Age at death, mean (SD) 70.0 (11.34) 73.2 (10.65) 69.0 (11.37)
Age at death, n (%)    
40 – 59 140,670 (19.7) 21,133 (12.0) 119,537 (22.2)
60 – 69 179,489 (25.1) 36,937 (21.0) 142,552 (26.4)
70 – 79 235,667 (32.9) 63,532 (36.1) 172,135 (31.9)
80+ 159,779 (22.3) 54,419 (30.9) 105,360 (19.5)
Male sex, n (%) 374,605 (52.3) 86,301 (49.0) 288,304 (53.4)
Race, n (%)    
White 468,979 (65.5) 138,203 (78.5) 330,776 (61.3)
Black 212,576 (29.7) 31,290 (17.8) 181,286 (33.6)
Asian 20,459 (2.9) 3,713 (2.1) 16,746 (3.1)
American Indian 9,479 (1.3) 2,168 (1.2) 7,311 (1.4)
Other 4,112 (0.6) 647 (0.4) 3,465 (0.6)
Location,* n (%)    
Urban 562,156 (78.6) 133,957 (76.1) 428,199 (79.4)
Large rural city/town 74,316 (10.4) 20,758 (11.8) 53,558 (9.9)
Small rural town 46,060 (6.4) 12,105 (6.9) 33,955 (6.3)
Isolated small rural town 33,073 (4.6) 9,201 (5.2) 23,872 (4.4)
Hemodialysis,** n (%) 672,623 (94.0) 166,308 (94.5) 506,315 (93.8)
Years on dialysis, mean (SD) 3.2 (2.90) 3.0 (2.77) 3.3 (2.94)
Years on dialysis, median (Q1, Q3) 2.4 (1.1, 4.5) 2.2 (0.9, 4.2) 2.5 (1.1, 4.6)
  1. All of the differences between dialysis discontinuation groups are statistically significant at p < 0.001.
  2. *ESRD patient residence based on RUCA codes (zip code approximation of Census tracks).
  3. **Last treatment modality recorded prior to death.
  4. ESRD = End Stage Renal Disease; SD=Standard Deviation; RUCA = Rural Urban Commuting Areas; Q1 and Q3 = first and third quartiles.