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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample in 2005 (n = 35,102)

From: The impact of Medicare prescription drug coverage on the use of antidementia drugs

  Pharmacy benefit group
  No coverage (n = 3,939) $150 cap (n = 2,662) $350 cap (n = 19,014) No cap (n = 9,487)
Female sex, No. (%) 2,183 (55.42)* 1,658 (62.28)* 11,806 (62.09)* 4,984 (52.54)
Age, y, No. (%)     
  65-74 1,866 (47.37)* 1,323 (49.70)* 9,983 (52.50)* 5,755 (60.66)
  75-84 1,746 (44.33)* 1,080 (40.57)* 7,478 (39.33)* 3,232 (34.07)
  ≥85 327 (8.30)* 259 (9.73)* 1,553 (8.17)* 500 (5.27)
Race, mean (SE)     
  White 0.930 (0.002)* 0.960 (0.001)* 0.919 (0.001)* 0.921 (0.001)
  African American 0.052 (0.002)* 0.024 (0.001)* 0.060 (0.001)* 0.057 (0.001)
Status below poverty line, mean (SE)     
  <100% 0.106 (0.001)* 0.111 (0.001)* 0.101 (0.000)* 0.099 (0.001)
  100-200% 0.183 (0.001)* 0.209 (0.001)* 0.172 (0.000)* 0.169 (0.001)
  >200% 0.712 (0.002)* 0.680 (0.002)* 0.727 (0.001)* 0.732 (0.001)
Urban residence, mean (SE) 0.737 (0.005)* 0.577 (0.007)* 0.791 (0.002) 0.797 (0.003)
Income, US dollars, median (SE) 37,573.77 (159.01)* 34,839.85 (111.25)* 38,957.08 (78.64)* 39,501.05 (110.80)
Comorbidity, No. (%)     
  Congestive heart failure 507 (12.87) 381 (14.31) 2,656 (13.97)* 1,240 (13.07)
  Depression 259 (6.58)* 215 (8.08) 1,465 (7.71) 725 (7.64)
  Diabetes 905 (22.98)* 679 (25.51) 4,755 (25.01) 2,464 (25.97)
  Hypertension 2,554 (64.84)* 1,892 (71.07) 1,3640 (71.74)* 6,649 (70.09)
  Ischemic heart disease 1,110 (28.18) 757 (28.44) 5,551 (29.20) 2,796 (29.47)
Prospective risk score, mean (SE)     
  2004 0.825 (0.011) 0.855 (0.014) 0.859 (0.005) 0.844 (0.008)
  2005 0.919 (0.012) 0.950 (0.016) 0.942 (0.006) 0.924 (0.009)
  2006 1.034 (0.015) 1.040 (0.017) 1.044 (0.007) 1.029 (0.010)
  2007 1.153 (0.017) 1.186 (0.020)* 1.176 (0.008)* 1.141 (0.011)
Use of medical services in 2005, mean (SE)     
  Outpatient visits, No. 23.146 (0.407)* 25.158 (0.585) 25.134 (0.193)* 25.876 (0.287)
  Outpatient costs, US dollars 3,498.249 (92.900)* 3,532.557 (124.010)* 3,741.035 (47.238) 3,869.198 (65.966)
  Medical costs, US dollars 6,000.270 (186.796) 5,837.965 (226.731) 6,208.844 (87.559) 6,266.855 (130.414)
Prescriptions of antidementia drugs, mean (SE)     
 2004-2007     
  Aricept® 0.675 (0.064)* 0.841 (0.090) 0.878 (0.036) 0.908 (0.054)
  Razadyne® 0 0 0.008 (0.002) 0.019 (0.005)
  Exelon® 0.079 (0.023)* 0.085 (0.032)* 0.100 (0.012)* 0.228 (0.031)
  Cognex® 0 0 0 0
  Namenda® 0.476 (0.055) 0.343 (0.054)* 0.401 (0.023)* 0.498 (0.038)
 Pre–Part D     
  Aricept® 0.172 (0.026)* 0.262 (0.039) 0.297 (0.016) 0.335 (0.025)
  Razadyne® 0 0 0.008 (0.002) 0.019 (0.005)
  Exelon® 0.032 (0.013)* 0.044 (0.018)* 0.040 (0.006)* 0.106 (0.016)
  Cognex® 0 0 0 0
  Namenda® 0.102 (0.018) 0.084 (0.019)* 0.096 (0.008)* 0.140 (0.015)
 Post–Part D     
  Aricept® 0.503 (0.046) 0.579 (0.059) 0.581 (0.023) 0.573 (0.033)
  Razadyne® 0 0 0 0
  Exelon® 0.047 (0.013)* 0.041 (0.016)* 0.060 (0.007)* 0.122 (0.017)
  Cognex® 0 0 0 0
  Namenda® 0.375 (0.041) 0.259 (0.040)* 0.305 (0.017) 0.357 (0.026)
  1. Abbreviations: SE, standard error.
  2. *differences are statistically significant at p < 0.05 level compared to the No cap group.