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Table 2 Characteristics of bisphosphonate exposure cohort stratified by upper gastrointestinal bleeding status a

From: The association between serious upper gastrointestinal bleeding and incident bisphosphonate use: a population-based nested cohort study

  UGIB NoUGIB Total
n = 117 (0.4) n = 26 106 (99.6) N = 26 223
Age (y) b
 ≤ 80 47 (40.2) 15,213 (58.3) 15,260 (58.2)
 > 80 70 (59.8) 10,893 (41.7) 10,963 (41.8)
mean ± SD 81.8 ± 6.9 78.8 ± 6.9 78.8 ± 6.9
Sex c
 Female 96 (82.1) 23,030 (88.2) 23,126 (88.2)
 Male 21 (17.9) 2,934 (11.2) 2,955 (11.3)
 Unknown 0 142 (0.5) 142 (0.5)
Comorbid conditions c
 None 6 (5.1) 1,936 (7.4) 1,942 (7.4)
 1 – 3 26 (22.2) 6,490 (24.9) 6,516 (24.8)
 4 - 6 66 (56.4) 13,256 (50.8) 13,322 (50.8)
 7 - 15 19 (16.2) 4,424 (16.9) 4,443 (16.9)
mean ± SD 4.77 ± 2.1 4.41 ± 2.2 4.41 ± 2.2
Comorbid conditions (by diagnosis)
 Cancer c 44 (37.6) 9,056 (34.7) 9,100 (34.7)
 Cerebrovascular disease c 30 (25.6) 5,324 (20.4) 5,354 (20.4)
 Diabetes c 16 (13.7) 4,269 (16.4) 4,285 (16.3)
 Cardiovascular disease b 91 (77.8) 16,542 (63.4) 16,633 (63.4)
 Hypertension c 84 (71.8) 17,437 (66.8) 17,521 (66.8)
 Osteoporosis c 27 (23.1) 7,354 (28.2) 7,381 (28.1)
 Osteoarthritis c 66 (56.4) 14,954 (57.3) 15,020 (57.3)
 Rheumatoid arthritis c 11 (9.4) 3,481 (13.3) 3,492 (13.3)
 Neurotic disorder c 52 (44.4) 9,941 (38.1) 9,993 (38.1)
 Depression / psychosis c 60 (51.3) 12,403 (47.5) 12,463 (47.5)
 Dementia c 27 (23.1) 5,050 (19.3) 5,077 (19.4)
 Incontinence c 48 (41.0) 9,473 (36.3) 9,521 (36.3)
 Parkinson’s c 2 (1.7) 835 (3.2) 837 (3.2)
 COPD c 38 (32.5) 7,910 (30.3) 7,948 (30.3)
 Asthma c 16 (13.7) 3,533 (13.5) 3,549 (13.5)
Past history of gastric ulcer disease b
 No 93 (79.5) 23,374 (89.5) 23,467 (89.5)
 Yes 24 (20.5) 2,732 (10.5) 2,756 (10.5)
Past history of serious GI bleeding
(requiring hospital stay) b
 No 103 (88.0) 24,895 (95.4) 24,998 (95.3)
 Yes 14 (12.0) 1,211 (4.6) 1,225 (4.7)
NSAIDs (oral) d
 No concurrent use 107 ( 91.5) 21,342 (81.8) 21,449 (81.8)
 Concurrent use 10 (8.5) 4,764 (18.2) 4,774 (18.2)
Anti-platelet / anti-coagulant
prescription drugs (oral) c
 No concurrent use 104 (88.9) 22,751 (87.1) 22,855 (87.2)
 Concurrent use 13 (11.1) 3,355 (12.9) 3,368 (12.8)
Proton pump inhibitors b    
 No concurrent use 83 (70.9) 21,725 (83.2) 21,808 (83.2)
 Concurrent use 34 (29.1) 4,381 (16.8) 4,415 (16.8)
  1. a Data are shown as number (percentage) unless otherwise indicated.
  2. b p < 0.001.
  3. c Not significant.
  4. d p < 0.05.
  5. GI = gastrointestinal; NSAID = Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; UGIB = upper gastrointestinal bleed.