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Table 1 Characteristics of the bisphosphonate exposure cohort stratified by upper gastrointestinal bleeding status a

From: The association between serious upper gastrointestinal bleeding and incident bisphosphonate use: a population-based nested cohort study

  UGIB Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p -Value
n = 117 (0.4)
≤ 80 years n = 47 (40.2) > 80 years n = 70 (59.8)
Age (y)
 ≤ 80 47 - (reference)  
 > 80 - 70 2.08 (1.44, 3.01) 0.000
Sex c
 Female 39 (83.0) 57 (81.4) (reference)  
 Male 8 (17.0) 13 (18.6) 1.72 (1.07, 2.76) 0.025
Comorbid conditions c     
 None 2 (4.3) 4 (5.7) (reference)  
 1 – 3 9 (19.1) 17 (24.3) 1.29 (0.51, 3.15) 0.571
 4 - 6 28 (59.6) 38 (54.3) 1.61 (0.70, 3.71) 0.267
 7 - 15 8 (17.0) 11 (15.7) 1.69 (0.55, 3.48) 0.487
Past history of gastric ulcer disease b
 No 35 (74.5) 58 (82.9) (reference)  
 Yes 12 (25.5) 12 (17.1) 2.21 (1.41, 3.46) 0.001
Past history of serious GI bleeding b
 No 41 (87.2) 62 (88.6) (reference)  
 Yes 6 (12.8) 8 (11.4) 2.79 (1.59, 4.90) 0.000
NSAIDs (oral) d
 No concurrent use 42 (89.4) 65 (92.9) (reference)  
 Concurrent use 5 (10.6) 5 (7.1) 0.42 (0.22, 0.80) 0.009
Anti-platelet / anti- coagulant drugs (oral) c
 No concurrent use 40 (85.1) 64 (91.4) (reference)  
 Concurrent use 7 (14.9) 6 (8.6) 0.85 (0.48, 1.51) 0.848
Proton pump inhibitor drugs (oral) b
 No concurrent use 33 (70.2) 50 (71.4) (reference)  
 Concurrent use 14 (29.8) 20 (28.6) 2.03 (1.36, 3.03) 0.001
  1. a Data are shown as number (percentage) unless otherwise indicated.
  2. b p < 0.001.
  3. c Not significant.
  4. d p < 0.05.
  5. CI = confidence interval; GI = gastrointestinal; NSAID = UGIB = upper gastrointestinal bleed.