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Table 5 Association of demographic and socioeconomic factors with the presence and the number of chronic conditions; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) from binary logistic regression

From: Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of chronic morbidity among elderly people in Kosovo: a population-based survey

Variable Presence of chronic conditions* Multimorbidity
OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Sex:     
Men 1.00 (reference) 0.014 1.00 (reference) 0.081
Women 1.50 (1.09–2.08)   1.23 (0.98–1.54)  
Age-group:   <0.001 (2)   <0.001 (2)
65–74 1.00 (reference) - 1.00 (reference) -
75–84 2.45 (1.73–3.46) <0.001 1.46 (1.12–1.89) 0.005
≥85 2.93 (1.97–4.37) <0.001 1.81 (1.36–2.39) <0.001
Residence:     
Rural 1.00 (reference) 0.206 1.00 (reference) 0.598
Urban 1.22 (0.90–1.65)   1.06 (0.85–1.32)  
Educational level:   0.150 (2)   0.400 (2)
≥9 years 1.00 (reference) - 1.00 (reference) -
1–8 years 1.52 (0.99–2.32) 0.052 1.22 (0.84–1.77) 0.304
0 years 1.46 (0.87–2.45) 0.148 1.33 (0.88–2.03) 0.178
Self-perceived poverty:     
Not poor 1.00 ( reference) 0.010 1.00 (reference) 0.049
Poor 1.50 (1.10–2.05)   1.25 (1.00–1.55)  
Access to medical care     
Able 1.00 (reference) <0.001 1.00 (reference) <0.001
Unable 3.27 (2.27–4.71)   1.77 (1.41–2.20)  
  1. * OR: presence vs. absence of chronic conditions.
  2. OR: multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions) vs. single morbidity (1 chronic condition). Individuals with no chronic conditions (n = 244) were excluded from this analysis.
  3. Overall p-values and degrees of freedom (in parentheses).