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Table 1 Characteristics of study sample at T1by age (N = 484)

From: Three-year mortality in previously hospitalized older patients from rural areas - the importance of co-morbidity and self-reported poor health

  Total Age
   65-79 years ≥80 years
  N (%) 484 (100) 207 (42.76) 277 (57.23)
Socio-demographic     
 Age Mean (SD) 80.66 (7.43) 73.64 (4.28) 85.91 (4.29)
 Women N (%) 243 (50.21) 94 (45.41) 149 (53.79)
 Living alone N (%) 248 (51.23) 80 (38.64) 168 (60.65)**
 Smoking N (%) 59 (12.19) 36 (17.39) 23 (8.30)**
Medical information     
Assisted living before hospitalization     
 Nursing Home N (%) 16 (3.31) 2 (0.97) 14 (5.05)**
 Nursing care at home N (%) 160 (33.06) 41 (19.80) 119 (42.96)
 Domestic assistance at home a N (%) 58 (11.98) 13 (6.28) 45 (16.25)
 No assistance or care N (%) 250 (51.65) 151 (72.95) 99 (35.74)
Previous hospitalizations in last 5 years Mean (SD) 2.16 (2.61) 2.33 (2.92) 2.03 (2.35)
Actual Hospitalization (days)     
 Duration Mean (SD) 6.42 (5.21) 5.94 (5.10) 6.74 (5.27)**
 Duration before inclusion Mean (SD) 4.33 (3.55) 3.82 (2.92) 4.72 (3.92)
Charlson Index Mean (SD) 2.17 (2.01) 2.26 (2.08) 2.12 (1.96)
Main diagnosis on admittance     
 Cardiovascular disease N (%) 137 (28.31) 51 (24.63) 86 (31.05)*
 Pulmonary disease N (%) 101 (20.86) 55 (26.57) 46 (52.71)
Impairment     
MMSE Mean (SD) 23.94 (3.83) 25.27 (3.50) 22.94 (3.77)**
P-ADL Mean (SD) 9.01 (3.46) 8.13 (3.41) 9.66 (3.42)**
I-ADL Mean (SD) 9.55 (3.58) 8.54 (3.55) 10.31 (3.42)**
Impaired hearing N (%) 189 (39.05) 50 (24.15) 138 (49.82)**
Impaired reading vision N (%) 109 (22.52) 35 (16.91) 74 (26.72)**
Emotional situation     
Prevalence of depression     
 HAD-D ≥ 8 N (%) 50 (10.33) 20 (9.66) 30 (10.83)
 HAD-D ≥ 11 N (%) 15 (3.10) 5 (2.42) 10 (3.61)
Prevalence of anxiety     
 HAD-A ≥ 8 N (%) 45 (9.29) 23 (11.11) 22 (7.94)
 HAD-A ≥ 11 N (%) 21 (4.34) 13 (6.28) 8 (2.89)
Self-reported health     
Perceived overall health as poor N (%) 67 (13.84) 34 (16.43) 33 (11.91)
Perceived social function as impaired due to poor health N (%) 336 (69.42) 137 (66.18) 199 (71.84)
  1. MMSE = Mini Mental State Examination, P-ADL = performance of the personal activities of daily living, IADL = performance of the instrumental activities of daily living, HAD-D = The depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, HAD-A = The anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale.
  2. a Assistance with cleaning, preparing food, shopping for groceries, etc.
  3. b Of those who scored  23 on the MMSE, there were 11 females and 13 males (total 24/484 = 5.0%) who scored <18 on the MMSE.
  4. * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01.