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Table 2 Place and activity-specific numbers, rates and women/men rate ratios (95% Confidence Intervals) of falls and injurious falls by sex (per 1,000 person-years)

From: Sex differences in circumstances and consequences of outdoor and indoor falls in older adults in the MOBILIZE Boston cohort study

    All falls     Falls resulting in injury  
Number of falls# Men’s rate Women’s rate Crude rate ratio Adjusted† Number of falls# Men’s rate Women’s rate Crude rate ratio Adjusted†
(Women/Men) Rate ratio (Women/Men) Rate ratio
(Women/Men) (Women/Men)
Total falls 1680 915 779 0.85 (0.70 - 1.04) 1.01 (0.84 - 1.21) 715 281 385 1.37 (1.09 - 1.70)** 1.45 (1.17 - 1.80)**
Total outdoor falls 786 461 330 0.72 (0.56 - 0.92)** 0.84 (0.67 - 1.05) 364 174 176 1.01 (0.77 - 1.33) 1.15 (0.88 - 1.51)
I. Place of outdoor fall           
In own neighborhood (6 blocks) 432 247 182 0.74 (0.56 - 0.98)* 0.84 (0.65 - 1.10) 199 88 100 1.14 (0.81 - 1.60) 1.31 (0.94 - 1.84)
Out of neighborhood ( > 6 blocks) 346 211 144 0.68 (0.48 - 0.96)* 0.85 (0.62 - 1.16) 161 83 75 0.90 (0.62 - 1.29) 1.04 (0.73 - 1.49)
Specific location,           
Sidewalk, street, curb 323 152 156 1.03 (0.75 - 1.41) 1.28 (0.94 - 1.73) 178 70 95 1.35 (0.92 - 1.97) 1.66 (1.14 - 2.43)**
Just outside private home 220 134 87 0.65 (0.45 - 0.93)* 0.74 (0.52 - 1.05) 97 49 45 0.93 (0.59 - 1.47) 1.04 (0.65 - 1.66)
Recreational 117 104 36 0.34 (0.17 - 0.70)** 0.30 (0.15 - 0.58)** 28 22 10 0.43 (0.15 - 1.20) 0.39 (0.14 - 1.10)
Parking place 91 53 39 0.73 (0.45 - 1.18) 0.79 (0.48 - 1.28) 47 25 21 0.86 (0.47 - 1.59) 0.92 (0.49 - 1.71)
Public transit 31 20 11 0.55 (0.19 - 1.59) 1.21 (0.40 - 3.65) 12 08 NC 0.54 (0.14 - 2.07) 0.76 (0.20 - 2.83)
II. Activity at time of outdoor fall           
Walking 356 190 158 0.83 (0.61 - 1.13) 0.98 (0.74 - 1.30) 165 72 83 1.15 (0.80 - 1.66) 1.42 (1.00 - 2.02)
Vigorous activity 109 92 35 0.38 (0.18 - 0.81)* 0.42 (0.21 - 0.84)* 32 24 11 0.45 (0.18 - 1.11) 0.51 (0.20 - 1.27)
Going up or down stairs 107 55 49 0.90 (0.56 - 1.42) 1.01 (0.63 - 1.61) 63 30 31 1.00 (0.57 - 1.76) 1.09 (0.62 - 1.93)
Single step/curb 50 25 24 0.94 (0.51 - 1.73) 1.07 (0.57 - 2.00) 29 13 15 1.10 (0.51 - 2.38) 1.16 (0.53 - 2.56)
Gardening/lawn care 47 28 18 0.67 (0.32 - 1.38) 0.94 (0.44 - 1.98) 14 NC 09 3.41 (0.71 - 16.42) 4.28 (0.87 - 21.02)
Getting in/out of something 28 17 11 0.67 (0.31 - 1.43) 0.66 (0.30 - 1.43) 13 08 05 0.67 (0.23 - 2.01) 0.54 (0.17 - 1.72)
Not moving 21 13 08 0.63 (0.25 - 1.59) 0.77 (0.31 - 1.90) 11 NC 06 1.53 (0.37 - 6.26) 1.93 (0.47 - 7.85)
Bending 15 11 05 0.50 (0.16 - 1.58) 0.44 (0.13 - 1.53) 7 04 NC 0.77 (0.17 - 3.44) 0.72 (0.14 - 3.59)
Other 37 20 17 0.84 (0.42 - 1.69) 1.09 (0.54 - 2.19) 24 10 12 1.16 (0.49 - 2.75) 1.63 (0.67 - 3.98)
III. Outdoor environment           
Surface conditions           
Dry 494 259 221 0.86 (0.65 - 1.12) 1.01 (0.79 - 1.30) 275 129 134 1.04 (0.76 - 1.41) 1.17 (0.87 - 1.58)
Snowy/icy 199 140 77 0.55 (0.36 - 0.86)** 0.57 (0.38 - 0.87)** 54 24 28 1.16 (0.63 - 2.12) 1.34 (0.73 - 2.43)
Wet 71 43 28 0.65 (0.36 - 1.16) 0.86 (0.47 - 1.55) 32 18 14 0.74 (0.35 - 1.56) 0.92 (0.42 - 2.03)
Slipped or tripped 518 291 223 0.77 (0.58 - 1.02) 0.85 (0.66 - 1.11) 231 101 117 1.17 (0.83 - 1.64) 1.30 (0.94 - 1.81)
Poor lighting 49 22 25 1.15 (0.57 - 2.32) 1.30 (0.65 - 2.60) 24 NC 14 1.73 (0.65 - 4.61) 1.93 (0.72 - 5.12)
Total indoor falls 894 428 446 1.05 (0.82 - 1.34) 1.18 (0.94 - 1.48) 351 107 209 1.98 (1.44 - 2.72)** 1.96 (1.44 - 2.68)**
I. Place of indoor fall           
In own home 726 355 363 1.03 (0.79 - 1.35) 1.20 (0.93 - 1.54) 263 86 155 1.84 (1.30 - 2.59)** 1.84 (1.31 - 2.58)**
Living/family room 183 96 88 0.93 (0.62 - 1.39) 1.03 (0.70 - 1.52) 48 23 27 1.44 (0.70 - 2.97) 1.42 (0.70 - 2.85)
Bedroom 156 59 85 1.44 (0.91 - 2.28) 1.55 (0.98 - 2.46) 64 20 38 1.90 (0.99 - 3.64) 1.89 (0.97 - 3.68)
Stairs in home 99 66 37 0.57 (0.34 - 0.95)* 0.51 (0.30 - 0.86)* 38 13 21 1.61 (0.76 - 3.41) 1.53 (0.72 - 3.22)
In home, other/don’t know 95 60 40 0.68 (0.35 - 1.31) 0.94 (0.49 - 1.81) 19 11 09 0.96 (0.36 - 2.57) 0.92 (0.34 - 2.47)
Kitchen/dining room 87 29 51 1.88 (1.04 - 3.40)* 2.72 (1.42 - 5.22)** 39 04 27 6.83 (2.05 - 22.79)** 6.37 (1.91 - 21.26)**
Hall/lobby/doorway 60 24 33 1.37 (0.73 - 2.57) 1.37 (0.73 - 2.57) 29 09 17 1.82 (0.75 - 4.44) 1.78 (0.72 - 4.36)
Bathroom 46 16 26 1.63 (0.79 - 3.37) 2.09 (0.94 - 4.63) 26 08 15 1.92 (0.74 - 5.00) 3.45 (1.01 - 11.73)*
In another home 37 12 21 1.80 (0.84 - 3.87) 1.73 (0.81 - 3.71) 18 03 12 4.65 (1.05 - 20.66)* 4.43 (1.00 - 19.60)
Inside another building 131 62 63 1.02 (0.66 - 1.57) 1.02 (0.66 - 1.58) 70 19 42 2.29 (1.18 - 4.44)* 2.23 (1.13 - 4.40)*
II. Activity at time of indoor fall           
Walking 324 147 172 1.20 (0.84 - 1.70) 1.46 (1.04 - 2.06)* 129 32 82 2.47 (1.50 - 4.06)** 2.51 (1.52 - 4.16)**
Vigorous activity 34 NC 20 1.78 (0.74 - 4.31) 1.78 (0.71 - 4.44) 13 04 08 1.88 (0.49 - 7.27) 1.73 (0.44 - 6.74)
Going up or down stairs 132 81 53 0.66 (0.43 - 1.02) 0.63 (0.40 - 0.97)* 59 21 33 1.55 (0.85 - 2.82) 1.48 (0.82 - 2.69)
Single step/curb 4 02 02 0.61 (0.05 - 7.12) 1.03 (0.05 - 19.37) 0 0 0 -- --
Household tasks 44 08 29 3.68 (1.50 - 8.98)** 3.48 (1.41 - 8.55)** 19 03 13 4.91 (1.13 - 21.26)** NC
Getting in/out of something 135 55 70 1.29 (0.81 - 2.04) 1.51 (0.94 - 2.41) 55 16 33 2.04 (1.02 - 4.08)* 2.59 (1.21 - 5.56)*
Not moving 94 49 45 0.93 (0.55 - 1.57) 0.95 (0.57 - 1.57) 35 14 19 1.42 (0.64 - 3.18) 1.30 (0.59 - 2.90)
Bending 35 17 17 0.95 (0.43 - 2.10) 0.92 (0.40 - 2.10) 15 05 08 1.52 (0.40 - 5.76) 1.32 (0.34 - 5.12)
Other 68 31 34 1.09 (0.59 - 2.00) 1.09 (0.59 - 2.03) 26 08 15 1.86 (0.69 - 4.98) 1.73 (0.64 - 4.69)
III. Indoor environment           
Surface conditions           
Dry 858 408 431 1.06 (0.82 - 1.37) 1.20 (0.95 - 1.51) 334 102 200 2.01 (1.45 - 2.79)** 1.98 (1.44 - 2.74)**
Wet 31 17 14 0.80 (0.39 - 1.64) 0.82 (0.40 - 1.71) 15 07 08 1.16 (0.38 - 3.59) 1.38 (0.40 - 4.69)
Slipped or tripped 384 157 203 1.29 (0.96 - 1.74) 1.32 (0.99 - 1.75) 159 41 97 2.35 (1.54 - 3.59)** 2.34 (1.54 - 3.57)**
Light conditions too poor to see 69 24 39 1.63 (0.92 - 2.87) 1.56 (0.89 - 2.76) 36 07 NC NC NC
  1. Sample population 267 men and 467 women with a total of 1680 falls with indoor/outdoor location information, and a total follow-up time of 2066.5 person years.
  2. All rates and rate ratios estimated by negative binomial regression.
  3. Abbreviations: RR Rate Ratio, ratio of women rate to men rate. NC Regression model does not converge (too few observations).
  4. #Number of falls for men and women combined. *p-value <0.05 **p-value <0.01.
  5. †Adjusted for a risk score composite of all factors in Table 1: age, education, race, body mass index, physical activity, blocks walked per week, outdoor walking type, balance, chair-stand ability, gait speed, activities of daily living, short physical performance battery, reduced activity due to illness in past year, poor vision, bodily pain, number of comorbidities, self-rated health, peripheral neuropathy, foot pain, knee osteoarthritis, depression, number of medications, use of psychotropic medication, MMSE, Trails-B score, number of falls in year before baseline and falls efficacy.