Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of men and women in the MOBILIZE Boston cohort

From: Sex differences in circumstances and consequences of outdoor and indoor falls in older adults in the MOBILIZE Boston cohort study

Characteristics Men Women p-value
(n = 276) (n = 467)  
Demographic    
  Age (years) 78.3 ± 5.2 78.1 ± 5.0 0.76
  Education completed (years) 14.8 ± 3.2 13.9 ± 3.0 <0.001
  White race/ethnicity 227 (82.3) 351 (75.3) 0.03
Lifestyle    
  Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.4 ± 4.4 27.7 ± 5.6 0.67
  Physical activity (PASE)    
   Moderate-vigorous occupational 21 (7.6) 56 (12.0) 0.06
   Recreational (hours/week) 1.3 ± 2.4 0.9 ± 1.7 0.07
   Light household chores in past week 229 (84.2) 431 (98.0) <0.001
   Lawn/garden chores in past week 113 (41.2) 148 (32.0) 0.01
   Total PASE score 112.9 ± 79.6 104.2 ± 65.4 0.44
  Blocks walked per week 53.8 ± 82.5 36.3 ± 57.7 <0.001
  Outdoor walking habit    0.55
   Non-walker 74 (27.3) 145 (31.7)  
   Exercise only 66 (24.4) 111 (24.3)  
   Utilitarian only 33 (12.2) 56 (12.3)  
   Both exercise and utilitarian 98 (36.2) 145 (31.7)  
Physical disability    
  Balance (Berg score) 50.5 ± 6.3 49.2 ± 6.9 <0.001
  Assisted chair-stand test using arms (seconds) 19 (6.9) 39 (8.4) 0.47
  Gait speed (m/sec) 0.99 ± 0.26 0.92 ± 0.25 0.002
  Activities of daily living:    0.71
   No difficulty 218 (79.0) 357 (76.5)  
   Little/some difficulty 39 (14.1) 72 (15.4)  
   Much difficulty/inability 19 (6.9) 38 (8.1)  
  Short physical performance battery (score) 9.6 ± 2.4 9.1 ± 2.6 0.01
  Reduced activity due to illness in past year 67 (24.3) 144 (30.8) 0.06
  Poor vision (worse than 40/100) 21 (7.6) 39 (8.4) 0.72
Illness-Related    
  Moderate/severe bodily pain 85 (30.9) 206 (44.2) <0.001
  Number of comorbid conditions 2.9 ± 1.6 2.9 ± 1.4 0.74
  Fair/poor self-rated health 44 (15.9) 67 (14.4) 0.56
  Peripheral neuropathy 44 (16.1) 47 (10.1) 0.02
  Foot pain on most days 54 (19.6) 125 (26.8) 0.03
  Knee osteoarthritis 67 (24.3) 122 (26.2) 0.57
  Depression 22 (8.0) 31 (6.6) 0.50
  Medication use    
  Number of medications 6.2 ± 3.2 6.2 ± 3.1 0.91
  Use of psychotropic medication 42 (15.3) 108 (23.4) 0.009
Cognition    
  MMSE score 27.4 ± 2.5 26.8 ± 2.7 0.004
  Trail making Test B adjusted for motor component (secs) 86.2 ± 61.9 91.5 ± 64.9 0.35
Fall-Related    
  Number of falls in year before baseline 0.9 ± 3.3 0.7 ± 1.6 0.17
  Falls efficacy score 96.3 ± 8.6 95.2 ± 9.7 0.03
  1. All variables had a sample size of 95-100% of full N shown. Results are means ± SD or frequency (%) and corresponding p-values for sex differences.
  2. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for age, education, body mass index, PASE, balance, gait speed, short physical performance battery, number of comorbid conditions, number of medications, MMSE, Trail B, falls before baseline, falls efficacy, and blocks walked per week; chi-square was used for all other variables.
  3. Includes antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, and other sedatives.
  4. Abbreviations: SD Standard deviation, PASE Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination.