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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants

From: Multimorbidity patterns of and use of health services by Swedish 85-year-olds: an exploratory study

Characteristics Men n = 189 Women n = 307 p-value (statistic) Effect size
Type of housing, n (%)    0.079 (χ2 = 3.08, df = 1) a φc = 0.079
 Ordinary housing 174 (92) 267 (87)   
 Sheltered accommodation/Nursing home 15 (8) 40 (13)   
Marital status, n (%)    <0.001(χ2 = 56.78, df = 1) a φc = 0.34
 Married/Cohabitated 142 (75) 124 (40)   
 Widowed/Divorced/Unmarried 47 (25) 183 (60)   
Living situation, n (%)    <0.001 (χ2 = 61.17, df = 1) a φc = -0.35
 Alone 68 (36) 220 (72)   
 With others 121 (64) 87 (28)   
Level of education, n (%)    <0.001(χ2 = 6.57, df = 1) a φc = -0.18
 ≤ 7 years 97 (52) 188 (64)   
 > 7 years 89 (48) 106 (36)   
Working status, n (%)    0.004 (χ2 = 10.83, df = 2) a φc = -0.15
 Low (blue collar) 81(44) 174(59)   
 Intermediate (white collar) 85(46) 103(35)   
 High (self-employed or academic profession) 17(9) 16(6)   
Use of assistive technology, n (%) 80 (43) 212 (70) <0.001(χ2 = 34.33, df = 1) a φc = 0.26
 No. of used assistive technology, Median, (IQR) 0 (0–2) 2 (0–3) <0.001(U = 20 116, df = 490) b rrb = 0.26
Assistance needed, n (%) 75 (40) 209 (68) <0.001 (χ2 = 37.11, df = 1) a φc = 0.28
 No. of used assistance service, Median, (IQR) 0 (0–1) 1 (1–2) <0.001(U = 19 001, df = 488) b rrb = 0.3
Self-rated Health (range 0–100), Mean ± SD 69 ± 19 65 ± 20 0.018 (t = -2.37, df = 435) c Cohen’s d = 0.21
No. of GP visits, Median (IQR) 1 (0–3) 2 (1–3) 0.057 (U = 26 119, df = 494) b rrb = 0.09
Any visit to ER, n (%) 55 (31) 95 (29) 0.664 (χ2 = 0.19, df = 1) a φc = 0.02
Any in-patient hospitalization, n (%) 44 (25) 79 (23) 0.539 (χ2 = 0.38, df = 1) a φc = 0.03
  1. GP, General practitioner; ER, Emergency Room;
  2. Number of subjects, % of subjects, means with standard deviations (SD), and median with interquartile range (IQR) of variables are shown.
  3. a Pearson Chi-square, b Mann–Whitney U Test; c Student’s t test; φc : Cramér’s phi; rrb: rank-biserial correlation coefficient r.