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Table 3 Mean difference of health-related musculoskeletal fitness measures, SF 36 physical scales and summary measure

From: Effect of tai chi on musculoskeletal health-related fitness and self-reported physical health changes in low income, multiple ethnicity mid to older adults

  Combined cohorts Cohen’s D P Cohort 1 Cohen’s D P Cohort 2 Cohen’s D P Cohort 3 Cohen’s D P
Anthropometric measures   
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) -0.048 .450 0.100 .906 -0.273 .004 -0.778 .002
Upper body musculoskeletal measures   
Overall Grip Strength (kg) 0.312 <0.001 0.420 .002 0.188 .262 0.298 .133
Arm Curl Test in 30 Seconds (#) 0.673 <0.001 0.895 <0.001 0.661 <0.001 0.404 .034
Lower body musculoskeletal measures   
Chair Stand Test in 30 Seconds (#) 0.717 <0.001 0.957 <0.001 0.790 <0.001 0.676 .001
Timed 8-Foot Up & Go Test (secs) -0.300 .001 -0.214 .321 -0.533 <0.001 -0.231 .047
Low back flexibility measures   
Sit & Reach (cm) 0.268 .004 0.155 .315 0.188 .167 0.575 .009
SF 36 physical scales   
Physical Functioning (PF) 0.326 <0.001 0.355 .006 0.326 .004 0.276 .180
Role Physical (RP) 0.037 .663 -0.069 .696 0.004 .918 0.368 .046
Bodily Pain (BP) 0.047 .587 -0.087 .557 0.051 .655 0.300 .069
General Health (GH) 0.241 .005 0.252 <0.001 0.209 <0.001 0.284 <0.001
SF 36 physical summary measure
Physical Health (PCS) 0.192 .033 0.067 .582 0.209 .025 0.487 .055
  1. Cohen’s D: mean difference calculated as post measure minus pre measure divided by standard deviation.
  2. Note: # designates repetitions completed.