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Table 1 Baseline socio-demographic & physical characteristics of program participants

From: Effect of tai chi on musculoskeletal health-related fitness and self-reported physical health changes in low income, multiple ethnicity mid to older adults

  Combined cohorts N (%) Cohort 1 N (%) Cohort 2 N (%) Cohort 3 N (%) P
Totals 209 (100.0) 78 (37.3) 80 (38.2) 51 (24.4)  
Sex
 Male 42 (20.1) 17 (21.8) 16 (20.0) 9 (17.6)  
 Female 167 (79.9) 61 (78.2) 64 (80.0) 42 (82.4) .847
Age groups
 50-64 years 73 (35.3) 12 (15.4) 46 (57.5) 15 (30.6)  
 65-74 years 86 (41.5) 41 (52.6) 28 (35.0) 17 (34.7) <0.001
 75+ years 48 (23.2) 25 (32.1) 6 (7.5) 17 (34.7)  
Mean (SD) 68.1 (8.62) 71.3 (6.7) 63.8 (7.7) 70 (9.8) <0.001
Ethnicity of origin
 Chinese 74 (36.1) 0 (0) 73 (91.3) 1 (2.0)  
 South American 54 (26.3) 45 (60.8) 2 (2.5) 7 (13.7)  
 Caribbean 13 (6.3) 9 (12.2) 1 (1.3) 3 (5.0) <0.001
 European 33 (16.1) 7 (9.5) 2 (2.5) 24 (47.1)  
 South Asian 10 (4.9) 10 (13.5) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Canadian 13 (6.3) 1 (1.4) 0 (0) 12 (23.5)  
 Other 8 (3.9) 2 (2.6) 2 (2.5) 4 (7.8)  
Education
 < High School 94 (46.5) 47 (61.0) 33 (41.2) 14 (28.6)  
 High School 79 (39.1) 25 (32.5) 34 (44.7) 20 (40.8) <0.001
 > High School 29 (14.3) 5 (6.5) 9 (11.8) 15 (30.4)  
 Smoking Status-Yes 4 (1.9) 2 (2.6) 1 (1.3) 1 (1.9) .833
 Drinking Status-Yes 45 (21.4) 17 (21.8) 9 (11.3) 19 (36.5) .003
Marital status
 Single 112 (54.9) 59 (75.6) 27 (35.1) 26 (52.0) <0.001
 Married 90 (44.1) 18 (23.1) 50 (64.9) 23 (48.0)  
Income
 <$14,000 per year 135 (71.4) 66 (90.4) 52 (70.3) 17 (40.5)  
 $14,000-$30,000 35 (18.5) 5 (6.8) 12 (16.2) 18 (42.9) <0.001
 >$30,000 19 (10.1) 2 (2.7) 10 (13.5) 7 (16.7)  
Chronic conditions
 Hypertension 105 (50.0) 52 (49.4) 27 (33.8) 26 (50.0) <0.001
 Arthritis 102 (48.6) 38 (51.3) 39 (48.8) 25 (48.1) .997
 Diabetes Mellitus 45 (21.4) 28 (19.5) 9 (11.3) 8.(15.4) <0.001
 Sleep Disturbance 54 (25.7) 20 (25.6) 21 (26.3) 13 (25.0) .987
 Depression 31 (14.8) 14 (17.9) 5 (6.3) 12 (23.1) .017
 Hearing Impairment 26 (12.4) 9 (11.5) 9 (11.3) 8 (15.4) .749
 Disorientation 14 (7.2) 9 (11.5) 4 (5.0) 1 (1.9) .090
 Heart Disease 12 (5.7) 8 (10.3) 3 (3.8) 1 (1.9) .097
aCOPD 10 (4.8) 4 (5.1) 2 (2.5) 4 (7.7) .385
 Tumour 5 (2.4) 1 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 4 (7.7) .013
bMulti-Morbidity 133 (63.3) 56 (71.8) 41 (51.2) 36 (69.2) .016
 Walking Assistance 18 (8.6) 13 (16.7) 0 (0.0) 5 (9.6) .001
c Weekly physical activity      
 Needs improvement/fair 35 (23.3) 14 (18.4) 15 (20.0) 6 (12.5)  
 Good 16 (7.9) 8 (10.5) 4 (5.3) 4 (8.3) .606
 Very good/excellent 150 (74.6) 56 (71.0) 56 (74.7) 38 (79.6)  
Mean (SD) 6.7 (3.1) 6.4 (2.9) 6.6 (3.1) (79.6) .196
d Previous Tai Chi 38 (18.1) 0 (0.0) 32 (40.0) 6 (11.8) <0.001
  1. a COPD: chronic obstructive lung disease.
  2. bMulti-morbidity: two or more chronic conditions.
  3. cPhysical Activity: based on the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire.
  4. dPrevious Tai Chi: Previous Tai Chi participation more than one year.
  5. Note: Totals may vary due to missing responses.