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Table 2 Fall characteristics

From: Fall incidents unraveled: a series of 26 video-based real-life fall events in three frail older persons

Characteristics Participant Total
  A B C  
Total number of falls 1 12 17 30
Number of falls on camera 1 10 15 26
Total camera time, months 5 7 5 17
Prefall phase, n (%)     
Activity before the fall     
Transitioning 0 2 7 9 (35)
Walking 0 2 5 7 (27)
Bending down 1 4 0 5 (19)
Dressing 0 1 3 4 (15)
Bathing 0 1 0 1 (4)
Use of walking aids 0 4 10 14 (54)
Critical phase, n (%)     
Initial fall direction     
Backward 0 5 9 14 (54)
Sideward 1 3 2 6 (23)
Forward 0 2 2 4 (15)
Straight down 0 0 2 2 (8)
Landing configuration     
Backward 0 5 11 16 (62)
Sideward 1 5 1 7 (27)
Forward 0 0 3 3 (11)
Perceived site of greatest energy absorption
Head 0 0 0 0
Pelvis/torso/buttocks 1 9 11 21 (81)
Upper limb 0 1 2 3 (11)
Lower limb 0 0 2 2 (8)
Impact to key body sites     
Head 1 9 6 16 (62)
Pelvis 1 10 12 23 (89)
Torso 1 9 11 21 (81)
Hand/wrist 1 6 5 12 (46)
Elbow/forearm 1 8 7 16 (62)
Knee 0 1 5 6 (23)
Shoulder 1 8 3 12 (46)
Mean duration (± SD) of critical phase, in milliseconds* 2750§ 1933 ± 538 1883 ± 719 1946 ± 639
Presence other persons 0 0 3 3 (11)
Postfall phase, n (%)     
Location fall     
Living area 0 6 11 17 (65)
Sleeping area 1 0 3 4 (15)
Hall 0 3 0 3 (12)
Bathroom 0 1 1 2 (8)
Use call alarm     
Yes 0 5 9 14 (54)
No 1 2 2 5 (19)
No need° 0 2 3 5 (19)
Impossible to assess 0 1 1 2 (8)
Mean time to use call alarm, sec. NA# 34 ± 33 133 ± 56 70 ± 64
Mean time for healthcare worker response, min. NA# 4 ± 3.9 9 ± 9.8 8 ± 8.4
Mean time on the ground, min. 30§ 10 ± 13.7 15 ± 17.2 14 ± 15.8
Unwitnessed falls - alarm used NA# 7 ± 4.6 13 ± 10.8 11 ± 9.2
Unwitnessed falls - no alarm used 30§ 25 ± 30.4 30 ± 40.3 28 ± 25.4
Recovery phase, n (%)     
Stand up unaided 0 0 0 0
Fall-related injuries     
None 1 2 14 17 (65)
Minor 0 8 0 8 (31)
Major 0 0 1 1 (4)
  1. Values are numbers (percentage) of falls captured on camera or mean ± SD; *the mean duration of the critical phase was calculated for 21 falls; #NA; not available because participant A only fell once and could not use the call alarm; °no need to use the call alarm because another person was in the room; §standard deviation could not be calculated due to only one fall.