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Table 2 Fall characteristics

From: Fall incidents unraveled: a series of 26 video-based real-life fall events in three frail older persons

Characteristics

Participant

Total

 

A

B

C

 

Total number of falls

1

12

17

30

Number of falls on camera

1

10

15

26

Total camera time, months

5

7

5

17

Prefall phase, n (%)

    

Activity before the fall

    

Transitioning

0

2

7

9 (35)

Walking

0

2

5

7 (27)

Bending down

1

4

0

5 (19)

Dressing

0

1

3

4 (15)

Bathing

0

1

0

1 (4)

Use of walking aids

0

4

10

14 (54)

Critical phase, n (%)

    

Initial fall direction

    

Backward

0

5

9

14 (54)

Sideward

1

3

2

6 (23)

Forward

0

2

2

4 (15)

Straight down

0

0

2

2 (8)

Landing configuration

    

Backward

0

5

11

16 (62)

Sideward

1

5

1

7 (27)

Forward

0

0

3

3 (11)

Perceived site of greatest energy absorption

Head

0

0

0

0

Pelvis/torso/buttocks

1

9

11

21 (81)

Upper limb

0

1

2

3 (11)

Lower limb

0

0

2

2 (8)

Impact to key body sites

    

Head

1

9

6

16 (62)

Pelvis

1

10

12

23 (89)

Torso

1

9

11

21 (81)

Hand/wrist

1

6

5

12 (46)

Elbow/forearm

1

8

7

16 (62)

Knee

0

1

5

6 (23)

Shoulder

1

8

3

12 (46)

Mean duration (± SD) of critical phase, in milliseconds*

2750§

1933 ± 538

1883 ± 719

1946 ± 639

Presence other persons

0

0

3

3 (11)

Postfall phase, n (%)

    

Location fall

    

Living area

0

6

11

17 (65)

Sleeping area

1

0

3

4 (15)

Hall

0

3

0

3 (12)

Bathroom

0

1

1

2 (8)

Use call alarm

    

Yes

0

5

9

14 (54)

No

1

2

2

5 (19)

No need°

0

2

3

5 (19)

Impossible to assess

0

1

1

2 (8)

Mean time to use call alarm, sec.

NA#

34 ± 33

133 ± 56

70 ± 64

Mean time for healthcare worker response, min.

NA#

4 ± 3.9

9 ± 9.8

8 ± 8.4

Mean time on the ground, min.

30§

10 ± 13.7

15 ± 17.2

14 ± 15.8

Unwitnessed falls - alarm used

NA#

7 ± 4.6

13 ± 10.8

11 ± 9.2

Unwitnessed falls - no alarm used

30§

25 ± 30.4

30 ± 40.3

28 ± 25.4

Recovery phase, n (%)

    

Stand up unaided

0

0

0

0

Fall-related injuries

    

None

1

2

14

17 (65)

Minor

0

8

0

8 (31)

Major

0

0

1

1 (4)

  1. Values are numbers (percentage) of falls captured on camera or mean ± SD; *the mean duration of the critical phase was calculated for 21 falls; #NA; not available because participant A only fell once and could not use the call alarm; °no need to use the call alarm because another person was in the room; §standard deviation could not be calculated due to only one fall.