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Table 3 Odds ratios for self-reported cognitive functioning and physical inactivity among older South Africans

From: Social capital and health among older adults in South Africa

Variables Cognitive functioning Physical inactivity
Sociodemographics Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age     
50–59 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
60–69 0.58 (0.41-0.81)** 0.59 (0.40-0.89)* 1.67 (1.17-2.38)** 1.71 (1.26-2.32)***
70–79 0.43 (0.31-0.59)*** 0.40 (0.26-0.65)*** 2.08 (1.27-3.38)** 2.15 (1.33-3.47)**
80+ 0.19 (0.10-0.38)*** 0.20 (0.08-0.49)*** 2.47 (1.59-3.85)*** 2.56 (1.37-4.79)**
Gender     
Female 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Male 1.52 (1.29-1.80)*** 1.25 (0.94-1.67) 0.78 (0.63-0.97)* 0.79 (0.62-1.02)
Educational level     
No schooling 1.00 1.00 1.00 ---
Less than primary 1.00 (0.69-1.43) 0.91 (0.55-1.49) 0.99 (0.67-1.47)  
Primary 1.32 (0.87-1.99) 1.15 (0.69-1.90) 1.22 (0.82-1.82)  
Secondary 4.05 (2.29-7.15)*** 2.96 (1.52-5.77)** 1.00 (0.56-1.78)  
Wealth     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 ---
Medium 1.17 (0.66-2.07) 1.19 (0.69-2.03) 0.93 (0.56-1.55)  
High 2.64 (1.41-4.94)** 2.05 (1.08-3.91)* 1.11 (0.52-2.38)  
Social capital     
Married/cohabitating 2.11 (1.58-2.82)*** 1.75 (1.27-2.42)*** 0.82 (0.64-1.00) ---
Social action     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Medium 1.38 (0.98-1.94) 1.20 (0.89-1.61) 0.59 (0.39-0.89)* 0.64 (0.44-0.92)*
High 1.45 (1.01-2.09)* 1.42 (0.92-2.19) 0.52 (0.36-0.78)** 0.60 (0.44-0.84)**
Sociability     
Low 1.00 --- 1.00 ---
Medium 1.33 (0.93-1.93)   0.74 (0.48-1.14)  
High 1.40 (0.76-2.56)   0.75 (0.34-1.69)  
Trust and solidarity     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 ---
Medium 1.72 (1.27-2.33)*** 1.28 (0.88-1.85) 0.82 (0.42-1.63)  
High 2.59 (1.62-4.16)*** 2.13 (1.24-3.66)** 0.54 (0.26-1.14)  
Safety     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Medium 0.52 (0.34-0.79)** 0.53 (0.30-0.95)* 1.85 (1.13-3.02)* 1.92 (1.03-3.59)*
High 0.69 (0.38-1.24) 0.51 (0.23-1.13) 1.07 (0.60-1.92) 1.18 (0.58-2.38)
Civic engagement     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Medium 1.89 (1.10-3.26)* 2.40 (1.15-5.05)* 0.43 (0.25-0.74)** 0.50 (0.29-0.85)*
High 2.33 (1.28-4.24)** 2.71 (1.27-5.78)* 0.38 (0.22-0.65)*** 0.50 (0.27-0.920*
Psychological resources     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Medium 1.98 (1.42-2.76)*** 1.63 (1.17-2.29)** 0.62 (0.42-0.92)* 0.64 (0.33-0.93)*
High 2.86 (1.77-4.62)*** 1.97 (1.16-3.33)* 0.38 (0.27-0.54)*** 0.46 (0.29-0.72)***
  1. ***P < .001; **P < .01; *P < .05.