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Table 4 Results of dual task costs of walking analysis

From: A cognitive-motor intervention using a dance video game to enhance foot placement accuracy and gait under dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

Condition/Parameters Dance Group (n = 11) Control Group (n = 10) P between r
  Δ DTC % P within Δ DTC % P within   
Normal walking speed
Velocity - 8.22 0.16 + 0.90 0.96 0.29 0.23
Cadence - 4.92 0.13 + 2.85 0.80 0.15 0.32+
Step time - 5.80 0.09° + 2.00 0.88 0.25 0.27
Cycle time - 5.68 0.09° + 3.01 0.88 0.18 0.29
Stance time - 6.69 0.11 + 1.93 0.96 0.23 0.26
Single support time - 3.60 0.06° + 5.38 0.20 0.05* 0.43+
Double support time - 9.51 0.18 - 4.75 0.80 0.62 0.11
Step length - 3.54 0.21 - 2.52 0.65 0.86 0.04
Fast walking speed
Velocity - 7.07 0.04* - 3.05 0.88 0.29 0.23
Cadence - 4.35 0.09° + 0.62 0.72 0.16 0.31+
Step time - 6.27 0.08° + 5.03 0.58 0.16 0.31+
Cycle time - 6.02 0.08° + 4.74 0.58 0.16 0.31+
Stance time - 7.29 0.08° + 5.36 0.58 0.16 0.31+
Single support time - 3.51 0.21 + 4.18 0.51 0.04* 0.45+
Double support time - 13.42 0.03* + 9.23 0.33 0.18 0.29
Step length - 3.73 0.02* - 2.92 0.72 0.83 0.05
  1. Notes: Dual task cost are illustrated as the percentage of the mean difference between pre and post intervention (Δ DTC %), negative values represent a reduction of DTC, positive values represent an increase in DTC; * = significant within-group differences pre-post (P within  ≤ 0.05) calculated with Wilcoxon signed rank test; ° = trend to significance (p within  ≤ 0.10); * = significant between-group differences after intervention phase (P between ≤ 0.05) calculated with Mann–Whitney-U-test; ° = trend to significance (P between ≤ 0.10).
  2. Abbreviations: P within : P-value for within-group comparison; P between: P-value for between-groups comparison; r: effect size (r = 0.1, small effect, +r = 0.3, medium effect).