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Table 3 Clinical outcome data for the HOPE Pilot study cohort

From: Behavioral health coaching for rural-living older adults with diabetes and depression: an open pilot of the HOPE Study

Data-Collection Timeframe Outcome Measures
  HbA1c PHQ-9 PAID
Baseline, M (SD) 9.73 (2.62) 14.6 (2.99) 46.8 (6.29)
3-month, M (SD) 8.60 (3.56) 9.43 (3.91) 28.9 (15.6)
Change from baseline to 3-month, M (SD) 1.13 (1.70) 5.14 (2.27) 17.7 (10.7)
Effect Size, Cohen’s d 0.36 1.48 1.50
6-month, M (SD) 8.89 (3.35) 7.57 (5.03) 26.9 (25.9)
Change from baseline to 6-month, M (SD) 0.84 (1.62) 7.03 (4.43) 20.4 (20.7)
Effect Size, Cohen’s d 0.28 1.69 1.06
  1. M mean, SD standard deviation, R range;
  2. Effect sizes measured using Cohen’s d (0.8=large effect, 0.5=medium effect, 0.2=small effect).
  3. Baseline=readings at baseline assessment;
  4. 3-month=readings at 3-month follow-up assessment;
  5. 6-month=readings at 6-month follow-up assessment.
  6. HbA1c hemoglobin A1c; Lower HbA1c is consistent with better diabetes control.
  7. PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9; Higher total PHQ-9 scores indicate elevated depressive symptoms.
  8. PAID Problem Areas In Diabetes scale; Higher total PAID scores represent greater diabetes related distress.