Skip to main content

Table 3 Clavien classification of perioperative and 90-day morbidity and mortality

From: Radical cystectomy over the age of 75 is safe and increases survival

CLAVIEN grade   N %   N %
No complication   29 35.8  
  Perioperative morbidity (0-10d) 35 43.2 90-day morbidityEmphasis> 30 37
1   11 13.6   15 18.6
Any deviation from the normal postoperative course without the need for pharmacological treatment or surgical, endoscopic, and radiological interventions. Allowed therapeutic regimens are: drugs as antiemetics, antipyretics, analgetics, diuretics, electrolytes, and physiotherapy. This grade also includes wound infections opened at the bedside. Hyperemesis 1 1.2 Pneumonia 2 2.4
  Fever 7 8.4 Psoas abscess 1 1.2
  Ileus 1 1.2 Wound infection 11 13.6
  Pneumonia 1 1.2 Lympocele 1 1.2
  Urine leakage 1 1.2    
2   22 27.2   4 4.8
Requiring pharmacological treatment with drugs other than such allowed for grade I complications. Blood transfusions and total parenteral nutrition are also included. Blood transfusion 21 25.9 Wound dehiscense 1 1.2
  UTI 1 1.2 UTI 3 3.6
3   1 1.2   6 7.2
Requiring surgical, endoscopic or radiological intervention       
3a - - 0   2 2.4
Intervention not under general anesthesia - - 0 Cardiac arrythmia-pacemaker 1 1.2
     Obstructive nephropathy 1 1.2
3b   1 1.2   4 4.8
Intervention under general anesthesia Rectal injury, re-operation, colostomy 1 1.2 Evisceration, re-operation 1 1.2
     Stricture ileus, re-operation 2 2.4
     Incisional hernia 1 1.2
4   1 1.2   2 2.4
Life-threatening complication (including CNS complications) requiring IC/ICU management Sepsis 1 1.2 Myocardial Infarction 1 1.2
     Sepsis 1 1.2
5 - - 0   3 3.7
Death of a patient     Death 3 3.7
     30-day (sepsis, pneumonia) 2 2.4
     60-day (evisceration, re-operation 1 1.2
     90-day 0 0