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Table 2 Association of factors with warfarin prescribing

From: Use of warfarin in long-term care: a systematic review

Category Factor Direction of association (at 95% confidence)
0 = none + = positive - = negative
Association (multivariate adjusted) (OR, 95% CI) Endpoint Study Condition Study
Admission Admitted from hospital + OR = 1.16
(1.02-1.31)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.12
(0.97-1.29)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
Age 65-74 0 OR = 0.98
(0.61-1.57)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
  75-84 0 OR = 0.98
(0.61-1.58)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
   0 OR = 1.13
(0.98-1.31)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 0.99
(0.94-1.04)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
   0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
   0 OR = 1.01
(0.86-1.19)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  ≥ 85 0 OR = 1.13
(0.70-1.82)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
   0 OR = 1.07
(CI not reported)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Sloane et al. (2004) [13]
   + OR = 1.23
(1.05-1.43)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   - OR = 0.46
(0.22-0.94)
use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
   - OR = 0.86
(0.82-0.91)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
   0 OR = 0.86
(0.72-1.04)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
Bleeding risk 1 risk factor 0 OR = 0.75
(0.41-1.36)
use of warfarin AF McCormick et al. (2001) [11]
  ≥ 2 risk factors - OR = 0.51
(0.29-0.94)
use of warfarin AF McCormick et al. (2001) [11]
  High risk 0 OR = 0.82
(0.52-1.30)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
Cognitive impairment Moderate - OR = 0.93
(0.88-0.97)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
   0 OR = 0.93
(0.81-1.08)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 0.98
(0.86-1.12)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Severe 0 OR = 1.19
(0.99-1.44)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   - OR = 0.64
(0.52-0.80)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   - OR = 0.63
(0.60-0.67)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
   0 OR = 1.02
(CI not reported)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Sloane et al. (2004) [13]
Conditions Active malignancy 0 OR = 0.93
(0.57-1.51)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004)[10]
  Alzheimer's disease - OR = 0.77
(0.70-0.85)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
  Anemia 0 OR = 0.87
(0.55-1.39)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
  Aneurysms 0 OR = 0.88
(0.55-1.40)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
  Atrial fibrillation - OR = 0.73
(0.64-0.83)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al.
(2004) [18]
   + OR = 1.76
(1.50-2.06)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   + OR = 2.04
(1.95-2.14)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
  Congestive heart failure 0 OR = 1.13
(0.98-1.30)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.04
(0.65-1.65)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
   0 not reported use of warfarin AF Abdel-Latif et al. (2005) [7]
   0 OR = 1.02
(0.87-1.20)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Coronary artery disease + OR = 1.06
(1.02-1.11)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
   0 OR = 0.99
(0.62-1.58)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
  Dementia - OR = 0.84
(0.80-0.88)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
   - OR = 0.59
(0.38-0.90)
use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
  Depression + OR = 1.22
(1.02-1.46)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   + OR = 1.11
(1.05-1.18)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
   0 OR = 1.08
(0.93-1.24)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Diabetes mellitus 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Abdel-Latif et al. (2005) [7]
   0 OR = 1.17
(0.73-1.86)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
  Hypertension - OR = 0.87
(0.78-0.97)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   + OR = 1.23
(1.09-1.39)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.10
(0.69-1.75)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
   0 not reported use of warfarin AF Abdel-Latif et al. (2005) [7]
   + OR = 1.27
(1.22-1.32)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
  Left ventricular dysfunction 0 OR = 0.83
(0.63-1.09)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.07
(0.88-1.30)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Liver disease 0 OR = 1.53
(0.95-2.49)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
  Major comorbidity burden 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
  Moderate comorbidity burden 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
  Multiple conditions (4 or more) 0 OR = 0.84
(CI not reported)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Sloane et al. (2004) [13]
  Peptic ulcer disease 0 OR = 0.90
(0.57-1.43)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
   - OR = 0.64
(0.58-0.71)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
  Peripheral vascular disease + OR = 1.13
(1.05-1.20)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
  Previous bleeding 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
  Previous falls 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
  Previous GI bleeding - OR = 0.57
(0.52-0.62)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
   - OR = 0.18
(0.03-0.91)
use of warfarin AF Abdel-Latif et al. (2005) [7]
  Previous major bleeding 0 OR = 0.73
(0.46-1.15)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
  Previous stroke + OR = 4.93
(2.11-11.49)
use of warfarin AF Abdel-Latif et al. (2005) [7]
   + OR = 1.87
(1.20-2.91)
use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
  Previous stroke or TIA 0 OR = 1.24
(0.78-1.97)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
  Previous systemic embolus 0 OR = 1.46
(0.92-2.34)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
  Recent surgery - OR = 0.59
(0.37-0.94)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
  Renal insufficiency 0 OR = 0.91
(0.57-1.45)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
  Rheumatic mitral valvular 0 OR = 0.80
(0.50-1.28)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
  Seizure disorder 0 OR = 1.05
(0.66-1.67)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
  Transient ischemic attack + OR = 1.34
(1.09-1.64)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 0.99
(0.84-1.17)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
Drug Interaction Uses meds that increase bleeding risk 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
   0 OR = 1.26
(0.80-1.98)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004) [10]
Duration of AF 12-24 months 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
  > 24 months 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
  Onset of AF after admission 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
Facility Alzheimer's unit 0 OR = 0.78
(0.57-1.05)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.14
(0.80-1.62)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Hospital based 0 OR = 0.96
(0.72-1.29)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 0.96
(0.75-1.23)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Location rural 0 OR = 0.89
(CI not reported)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Sloane et al. (2004) [13]
  Location urban + OR = 1.38
(1.16-1.65)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.06
(0.87-1.3)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Large new model facility (vs small) 0 OR = 0.61
(CI not reported)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Sloane et al. (2004) [13]
  Non-white > 10% (vs > 0% to < 5%) 0 OR = 1.09
(0.91-1.32)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   + OR = 1.22
(1.03-1.43)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Non-white > 5% to < 10% (vs > 0% to < 5%) 0 OR = 1.00
(0.81-1.24)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 0.95
(0.78-1.15)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Non-white 0% (vs > 0% to < 5%) - OR = 0.74
(0.57-0.96)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.17
(0.93-1.46)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Ownership status for profit (vs non-profit) 0 OR = 0.90
(0.76-1.07)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 0.90
(0.77-1.05)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Ownership status government (vs non-profit) 0 OR = 0.86
(0.64-1.17)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 0.99
(0.76-1.29)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Part of a chain + OR = 1.20
(1.01-1.42)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   - OR = 0.85
(0.73-0.99)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Payment source % Medicaid (per 10 unit increase) 0 OR = 0.98
(0.91-1.05)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 0.95
(0.88-1.03)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Payment source % other-pay (per 10 unit increase) 0 OR = 0.94
(0.87-1.01)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 0.97
(0.89-1.05)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Presence of a RN/LPN 0 OR = 0.74
(CI not reported)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Sloane et al. (2004) [13]
  Size ≤ 80 (vs 81-199) 0 OR = 1.01
(0.81-1.26)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 0.92
(0.77-1.11)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Size ≥ 200 (vs 81 to 199) 0 OR = 1.17
(0.99-1.39)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.08
(0.90-1.30)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Special care unit 0 OR = 1.15
(0.83-1.59)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   + OR = 1.33
(1.02-1.73)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Staff resources any full-time physicians - OR = 0.76
(0.63-0.92)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.05
(0.89-1.24)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Staff resources (contract) 0 OR = 1.04
(0.89-1.20)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.02
(0.89-1.17)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Staff resources (physician extenders) + OR = 1.21
(1.0-1.47)
discontinue warfarin
or antiplatelets
Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.08
(0.87-1.34)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Traditional facility (vs small) 0 OR = 0.78
(CI not reported)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Sloane et al. (2004) [13]
  Weekly physician visits 0 OR = 0.94
(CI notreported)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Sloane et al. (2004) [13]
Gender Female 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
   - OR = 0.94
(0.90-0.98)
use of warfarin orantiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
   0 OR = 0.99
(0.87-1.13)
initiate warfarin orantiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.00
(0.89-1.13)
discontinue warfarinor antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 0.81
(CI not reported)
use of warfarin orantiplatelets Previous stroke Sloane et al. (2004) [13]
Physical Function Substantial mobility 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
  Mild impairment 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
  Intermediate mobility 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
  Moderate impairment 0 OR = 0.95
(0.75-1.20)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 0.90
(0.70-1.16)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al.
(1997) [8]
   0 OR = 1.03
(0.95-1.11)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
  Dependent - OR = 0.69
(0.64-0.75)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
   - OR = 0.73
(0.56-0.96)
initiate warfarin or
antiplatelets
Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 0.99
(0.79-1.25)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.21
(CI notreported)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Sloane et al. (2004) [13]
  Severe impairment 0 not reported use of warfarin AF Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]
Race/ethnicity American Indian 0 OR = 1.00
(0.70-1.43)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 Difference = -0.8(-8.9 to 7.3) prevalence difference from non-Hispanic white for receiving warfarin or antiplatelets Recent ischemic stroke Christian et al. (2003) [17]
   0 OR = 1.47
(0.98-2.20)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Asian/Pacific islander 0 Difference = -5.2
(-18.1 to 7.8)
prevalencedifference from non-Hispanic white for receiving warfarin or antiplatelets Recentischemicstroke Christian et al. (2003) [17]
   0 OR = 0.71
(0.42-1.21)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   - OR = 0.44
(0.23-0.83)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Black - OR = 0.80
(0.75-0.85)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
  Hispanic 0 Difference = - 7.6
(-17.6 to 2.2)
prevalence difference from non-Hispanic white for receiving warfarin or antiplatelets Recent
ischemic
stroke
Christian et al. (2003) [17]
   0 OR = 0.81
(0.51-1.29)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous
stroke
Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.01
(0.62-1.65)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
  Non- Hispanic black - OR = 0.62
(0.49-0.78)
initiate warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   0 OR = 1.03
(0.86-1.24)
discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Hughes et al. (2004) [18]
   - Difference = - 7.6
(-11.2 to -3.9)
prevalence difference from non-Hispanic white for receiving warfarin or antiplatelets Recent ischemic stroke Christian et al. (2003) [17]
  Other 0 OR = 0.95
(0.86-1.04)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]
  White 0 OR = 0.69
(CI not reported)
use of warfarin or antiplatelets Previous stroke Sloane et al. (2004) [13]
Stroke risk 1 risk factor 0 OR = 1.44
(0.52-4.03)
use of warfarin AF McCormick et al. (2001) [11]
  2 risk factors 0 OR = 2.44
(0.93-6.39)
use of warfarin AF McCormick et al. (2001) [11]
  3 risk factors 0 OR = 2.37
(0.90-6.20)
use of warfarin AF McCormick et al. (2001) [11]
  ≥ 4 risk factors 0 OR = 2.50
(0.90-6.95)
use of warfarin AF McCormick et al. (2001) [11]
  High risk 0 OR = 1.49
(0.93-2.36)
use of warfarin AF Lau et al. (2004)[10]
  1. AF, atrial fibrillation; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio