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Table 1 The Spiritual Needs Model

From: Validation of the spiritual distress assessment tool in older hospitalized patients

Dimensions Definition of dimension Definition of need related to dimension
Meaning The dimension that provides orientation to an individual's life and promotes his or her overall life balance. The Need for life balance
The need to rebuild a new life balance and the need to learn how better to cope with illness or disability.
Transcendence The anchor point exterior to the person; the relationship with an external foundation that provides a sense of grounding. The Need for connection
The need for connection with his or her existential foundation and the need for Beauty (aesthetic sense).
Values The system of values that determines goodness and trueness for the person; it is made apparent in the person's actions and life choices. Value 1: The Need for values acknowledgement
The need that health professionals know and respect one's values.
   Value 2: The Need to maintain control
The need to understand and to feel included in decision-making processes and to be associated with health professionals' decisions and actions.
Psycho-social Identity The patient's environment; those elements, such as society, caregivers, family, and close relationships that together make up the person's singular identity. The Need to maintain identity
The need to be loved, to be heard, to be recognized, to be in touch, to have a positive image of oneself and to feel forgiven.