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Table 2 Psychosocial variables by gender group1

From: Gender differences in Greek centenarians. A cross-sectional nation-wide study, examining multiple socio-demographic and personality factors and health locus of control

  Males (N = 149) (%) Females (251) (%) p value
TCI subscales
Self-directness (SD) 29.4 (7.59) 29.14 (7.02) 0.67
Range 13-42 14-41  
Self-transcendence (SD) 16.73 (6.32) 16.75 (5.61) 0.66
Range 4-38 4-31  
Harm avoidance (SD) 14.71 (6.82) 15.67 (6.58) 0.23
Range 2-31 2-32  
Reward dependence (SD) 14.2 (4.26) 15.41 (4.3) 0.009*
Range 2-22 3-23  
HLC subscales
Internal HLC (SD) 21.36 (4.85) 21.19 (4.29) 0.598
Range 6-30 5-30  
External HLC (SD) 21.6 (5.43) 21.81 (5.06) 0.772
Range 9-36 6-35  
IPP subscales
Adaptability (SD) 26.58 (6.03) 27.92 (5.77) 0.027*
Range 11-40 10-41  
Spirituality (SD) 36.83 (6.54) 38.25 (5.45) 0.059
Range 12-45 17-45  
Optimism (SD) 38.02 (7.45) 36.15 (7.6) 0.011*
Range 16-50 14-50  
  1. SD: Standard deviation, TCI: Temperament and Character Inventory, HLC: Health Locus of Control, IPP: International Personality Item Pool
  2. 1 Gender differences in scale variables were assessed by non-parametric Mann-Whitney tests.
  3. *p < 0.05 (two-tailed)
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