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Table 1 Sociodemographic and disease-related characteristics by gender group1

From: Gender differences in Greek centenarians. A cross-sectional nation-wide study, examining multiple socio-demographic and personality factors and health locus of control

  Males
(N = 149) (%)
Females
(N = 251) (%)
p value
Mean age in years old (SD) Range 101.62 (1.88)
100-107
101.99 (2.13)
100-109
0.1
Habitat status 0.632
Home alone 38 (25.9) 53 (21.6)  
Home not alone 96 (64.4) 172 (68.5)  
Nursing home 13 (8.7) 20 (7.9)  
Type of habitat 0.134
Urban 33 (22.8) 74 (30.3)  
Rural 112 (77.2) 170 (69.7)  
Family status < 0.0005*
Non widow(-er) 30 (20.1) 15 (5.9)  
Widow(-er) 119(79.9) 236(94.1)  
Mean number of children (range) 3.8 (0-12) 4.2 (0-11) 0.233
Number of centenarian 1 st degree siblings 0.023*
No 132 (88.6) 238 (94.8)  
One 12 (8.1) 12 (4.8)  
More than one 5 (3.6) 1 (0.4)  
Education < 0.0005*
2Illiterate 32 (21.8) 139(55.6)  
3Literate 115(78.2) 111 (44.4)  
Income 0.21
< 500 euros 75 (51.7) 139 (58.9)  
≥500 70 (48.3) 97 (41.1)  
Smoking < 0.0005*
Yes 21 (14.4) 2 (0.8)  
No 116 (79.5) 242 (97.2)  
Occasionally 9 (6.2) 5 (2)  
BMI 0.001*
Normal 75 (57.3) 119 (51.5)  
Overweight 47 (35.9) 58 (25.1)  
Obese 5 (3.8) 30 (12.9)  
Diseases
Cardiovascular 36 (25.9) 59 (26.7) 0.965
Diabetes Mellitus 11 (7.9) 14 (6.3) 0.718
Cancer 28 (19.7) 66 (28) 0.094
Neuropsychiatric 2 (1.4) 11 (5) 0.141
  1. SD: Standard deviation, BMI: Body Mass Index
  2. 1Categorical by categorical comparisons were made using chi-square tests. Gender differences in scale variables were assessed by non-parametric Mann-Whitney tests.
  3. 2Illiterate: Centenarians who have not received formal education at all or have not completed primary school.
  4. 3Literate: Centenarians who have graduated at least from primary school.
  5. *p < 0.05 (two-tailed)
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